The Ten Commandments
A book by Joseph Lewis
Endnotes (converted from Footnotes)
The Second Commandment
Endnotes for The Second Commandment
2-1 Rev. G. Campbell Morgan, The Ten Commandments, p. 22.
2-2 Niedermeyer, The Ten Commandments Today, pp. 36, 38.
2-3 Westermarck, Morals, Vol. I, pp. 639, 641.
2-5 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 654.
2-6 Westermarck, Morals, Vol. II, p. 656.
2-7 Edward B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, Vol. II, p. 258.
2-8 A simple explanation of sympathetic magic is the superstitious belief in the direct association and influence between similar ideas and things. This will be further elaborated later on.
2-9 Westermarck, Morals, Vol. I, pp. 45, 46.
2-10 Ibid., p. 46.
2-11 Ibid., p. 49.
2-12 Westermarck, Morals, Vol. I, p. 50.
2-13 Ibid., p. 70.
2-15 Hastings, Encyclopædia Of Religion and Ethics, Vol. 7, p. 142.
2-16 Jewish Encyclopedia, "Art," Vol. 2, p. 143.
2-17 Ibid., p. 143.
2-18 Tylor, Researches into the Early History of Mankind, p. 120.
2-19 Joshua Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 124.
2-20 Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 126.
2-22 Ibid., p. 124.
2-23 Ibid., p. 128.
2-24 Frazer, Golden Bough, Vol. 1, p. 65.
2-25 Hastings, Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. 7, p. 127.
2-26 Frazer, Golden Bough, Vol. 9, p. 7.
2-27 Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 66.
2-28 Ibid., p. 55.
2-29 Tylor, Researches into the Early History of Mankind, p. 118.
2-30 Ibid., p. 119.
2-31 Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 1, pp. 56, 57.
2-32 Ibid., p. 58.
2-33 Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 63.
2-34 Hastings, Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. 7, p. 111.
2-35 Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 1, pp. 63, 65.
2-36 Ibid., p. 65.
2-37 Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 3, p. 67.
2-38 Westermarck, Morals, Vol. 2, pp. 67, 68.
2-39 Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 98.
2-40 Hastings, Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. 7, p. 112.
2-41 Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 96.
2-42 Animism, simply stated, is the superstitious belief of attributing life to inanimate objects and phenomena of nature.
2-43 Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 3, pp. 78-82.
2-44 Ibid., Vol. 3, pp. 82-83.
2-45 Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 3, p. 87.
2-46 Ibid., p. 91.
2-47 Ibid., pp. 91-94.
2-48 W. E. H. Lecky, History of Rationalism in Europe, Vol. 1, p. 82. Hereinafter referred to as Lecky, Rationalism.
2-49 Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 3, pp. 94-100.
2-51 New York Times, Nov. 12, 1935.
2-52 Ibid., Jan. 31, 1942.
2-53 Charles, op. cit., pp. 38, 39.
2-54 Lecky, Rationalism, Vol. 1, p. 70.
2-56 Catholic Encyclopædia, "Iconoclasm," Vol. 7, p. 620.
2-58 Charles, op. cit., p. 43.
2-59 Ibid., p. 56.
2-60 Ibid., p. 54.
2-61 Hastings, Encyclopædia "Art," Vol. 1, p. 854.
2-62 John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic, Vol. 1, pp. 479-481.
2-63 Hastings, Encyclopædia, "Art," Vol. 1, p. 854.
2-64 I am using the text of the Second Commandment as it appears in the Douay Version of the Bible and which the Catholic Encyclopædia says absolutely forbids making any kind of representation of men, animals and even plants ("Images," Vol. 7, p. 664) because of its direct connection with the Catholic Church and its relationship to this phase of the Commandment.
2-65 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 12, p. 569.
2-66 Grätz, History of the Jews, Vol. 2, p. 12; also Josephus, History of the Jews.
2-67 The Hebrews have not fared badly since they have been emancipated from this superstitious belief. Their use of coins in the modern world has brought them not only more liberty and wealth, but they have discovered that the punishment their God threatened never materialized. They may well honor the images of our Revolutionary leaders on our coins. These men were responsible for writing into our Constitution the Bill of Rights, the greatest charter of civil liberties the Hebrews ever enjoyed.
2-68 Josephus, Wars of the Jews (hereafter referred to as Josephus, Wars), Vol. 8, pp. 569, 570.
2-69 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 12, p. 569. It is very interesting to note that from about the third century A.D. the sign of the hexagram was used as the symbol of Judaism. Later on, in about the twelfth century, the Magen-David was adopted.
2-70 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (hereafter referred to as Josephus, Antiquities), Vol. 5, pp. 535, 536.
2-71 Josephus, Antiquities, pp. 535-537.
2-72 Josephus, Antiquities, pp. 539-547.
2-73 Josephus, Wars, Vol. 7, p. 465. There is another indication of Herod's concern that the religious customs of the Jews be not violated. As it was unlawful for any but priests to enter certain parts of the temple, Herod employed one thousand of them as masons and carpenters. In his desire to maintain it as a religious sanctuary of the Hebrews, he made "a breastwork of stone" around the whole at the level of the steps. On it were placed at frequent intervals inscriptions in Greek and Latin forbidding a non-Jew to enter farther on pain of death. One of these stones with the inscription has been recovered and is now in the museum at Ankara (formerly Constantinople). Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 12, pp. 85-88. (It must also be understood that the name Jesus was common among the Hebrews of that time. -- Author.)
2-74 Josephus, Wars, Vol. 5, pp. 432, 433.
2-75 Josephus, Wars, Vol. 7, pp. 528, 529.
2-76 Josephus, Antiquities, Vol. 5, pp. 547, 548, 549-550.
2-77 Ibid., p. 550.
One can judge the broad liberality of the Greek mentality from the following description: "Freedom also kept the Greeks from taboos and asceticism, for their religion allowed them a sane use of nature's gifts. Their morality, like other features of their lives, was governed by 'moderation.' Greek ethics was a social and not a religious phenomenon, and the two, ethics and religion, were kept separate and not joined as in other faiths. There was no divine sanction to their rules of conduct, for such rules were the work of human teachers, such as Socrates. Their simple ethics freed them from any deep sense of sin or fanaticism for unattainable perfection. The Greek accepted life, lived here and now, and was little concerned with doctrines of immortality. He hated death ... but did not fear it." Dr. Walter Woodburn Hyde, in Scientific Monthly, Washington, D.C., June, 1939 ("The Origin of Liberty").
2-78 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, p. 515.
2-79 Josephus, Antiquities, Vol. 6, p. 135.
2-80 Josephus, Wars, Vol. 8, p. 572.
2-81 Ibid., Vol. 8, pp. 573, 574.
2-82 Josephus, Wars, Vol. 8, p. 574.
2-83 Josephus, Antiquities, Vol. 6, p. 138.
2-84 See Kirsten, History and Destiny of the Jews, pp. 140 141. Also Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, p. 515; Josephus, Wars. For a more realistic description of their sufferings, see Lecky, Rationalism, Vol. 2, p. 100; Sachar, History of the Jews, p. 115.
2-85 Difficult as it may be to believe the story just related, we have a similar example in our own times. I refer to the sect called "Jehovah's Witnesses," which still implicitly adheres to the literal interpretation of this Commandment. Its devotees refuse to permit their children who attend our public schools to give the pledge of allegiance to the American flag on the ground that the flag is an "image"; to salute it would in effect, therefore, be to "adore," which they consider a direct violation of the provisions of this Commandment.
Jehovah's Witnesses have already begun to pay the penalty for their fanaticism. In a number of places they have been brutally beaten and driven out of the communities in which they lived, have been denied employment, and suffered other forms of violence and discrimination. They are denied civil protection in many cities in this country. Maury Maverick, former mayor of San Antonio, Texas, and former liberal advocate in Congress, recently condemned them for refusing to salute the flag and thereby "inciting disorder," saying: "At one time I would have said that was saying [doing] something childish. In times like these, this is an overt act." (New York World-Telegram, September 21, 1940.) It is not impossible to imagine that if this sect continues its present attitude toward the flag of this Republic, it may in time be deprived of the protection of that flag and be forced into complete segregation. This would be even more likely if the members of Jehovah's Witnesses were as distinct a racial group, and could be as easily identified, as were the Isrælites.
Jehovah's Witnesses have been outlawed in the Dominion of Canada, and even in Australia they are regarded with suspicion and denied the religious privileges accorded other religious groups. Yet their acts are not so serious or disturbing as were those committed by the Hebrews in destroying the "images in their midst."
Even the Supreme Court of the United States, which has time and again upheld the principle of freedom of thought and expression in religious matters, ruled (June 3, 1940) that because of the fanaticism of this sect, it could not invoke the Constitution as a protection in the practice of its fanatical doctrines; this despite the fact that for more than a century and a half freedom of expression has been a basic principle in our society, and we are accustomed to demonstrations of peculiar religious manifestations. If a situation of this kind could occur in a country like ours today, one can well understand the temper of the people twenty-three centuries ago when dealing with the Isrælites in their destruction of the Roman statues.
With a change in personnel of the Court, a rehearing was granted on the petition of interested parties -- publishers, civil organizations, etc. -- who regarded this decision as a precedent which might eventually result in the abridgment of the Constitutional guarantees of free speech, free press and freedom of religious worship. On this basis, the Court reversed its previous decision. In reviewing this case, the New York Times commented editorially on the sect: "...Their beliefs are their own concern, but their methods of urging them upon other people are annoying. Almost everywhere they have gone they have stirred up antagonism.... Yet if we permit extremists of an unpleasant sort to be deprived of their rights, it is hard to tell where the line can be drawn and who is to be deemed secure. We think the rights of all Americans are a little safer because Jehovah's Witnesses have had their second day in court" (May 4, 1943).
Following the above decision, another case was brought to the Supreme Court for a rehearing involving the question of the refusal of Jehovah's Witnesses' children to salute the flag in the public schools. Again the Court reversed the stand it had taken that saluting the flag was compulsory. However, Justice Felix Frankfurter, who wrote the majority opinion in one of the previous cases, and the minority opinion in this one, said that on five separate occasions where the flag salute question came before the Supreme Court "every Justice -- thirteen in all -- who participated 'found no Constitutional infirmity in what is now condemned.'" Noting that there are over two hundred and fifty religious denominations in the United States, he further declared: "Certainly this court cannot be called upon to determine what claims of conscience should be recognized and what should be rejected as satisfying the 'religion' which the Constitution protects. I cannot bring my mind to believe that the 'liberty' secured by the Due Process Clause gives this court authority to deny to the State ... the attainment of that which we all recognize as a legitimate legislative end -- namely, the promotion of good citizenship, by employment of the means here chosen." (See United States Supreme Court Decisions, May 3 and June 14, 1943.)
Although Arthur Krock of the New York Times commended the Court for its reversal in this case, he condemned the sect which provoked the court action, stating: "These parents and children belong to the militant and thoroughly unpatriotic, even subversive, sect known as Jehovah's Witnesses, who assert that in their creed a flag is an idol, an image, and therefore impious in their sight." (New York Times, June 15, 1943.)
For a detailed article on this group, see Saturday Evening Post, Sept. 14, 1940, Stanley High, "Armageddon, Inc.," and The Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses, American Civil Liberties Union pamphlet, 1941.
2-86 As to the claim that there are passages in the Old Testament prophesying the coming of Jesus Christ, see Thomas Paine's Examination of the Prophecies.
2-87 Frazer, Golden Bough: The Scapegoat, "Crucifixion of Christ," p. 412.
2-88 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 8, p. 659.
2-89 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 9, p. 660.
2-90 Hastings, Encyclopædia, Vol. 8, p. 819.
2-91 James H. Breasted, Dawn of Conscience, p. 352.
2-92 Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 10, p. 500.
2-94 Genesis, Chapter 1, verse 28.
2-95 New York American, Apr. 6, 1933.
2-96 Virginia S. Eifert, "The Story of Fire," Natural History Magazine, Feb., 1939.
2-97 For a detailed compilation of the detrimental influence of religion on human progress, see the following publications: William J. Fielding, The Shackles of the Supernatural; J. W. Draper, History of the Conflict between Religion and Science and History of the Intellectual Development of Europe; A. D. White, Warfare between Science and Theology, H. B. Bonner, Humanity's Gain from Unbelief; C. T. Gorham, Christianity and Civilization.
2-98 New York Times, Sept. 11, 1940.
2-99 James H. Leuba, God or Man, p. 272.
2-100 New York World-Telegram, Apr. 19, 1940.
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