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Kant, his principles of biblical criticism, i. 305

Kellerus, the Jesuit, his defence of tyrannicide, ii. 160

Kings, the power of the Pope for deposing, ii. 142, 147. Doctrine of the mediate character of the divine right of kings, 147. The doctrine of the 'social contract,' 148. Mariana's 'De Rege,' 150. Tyrannicide, 151 et seq. William Barclay's denial of the Pope's power of deposition, 164 note. Doctrine of passive obedience to, 175. 177. Hooker's doctrine of the regal power, 178

Kirk, the Scotch, Buckle's description of the, i. 144 note

Kirk, Robert, minister of Aberfoil, his account of evil spirits among the Highlanders, i. 148 note Knowledge, the increase of, one of the great causes of liberty, ii. 202

Knox, John, his denunciation of the Queen hearing mass, ii. 49. Advocates the lawfulness of persecution, 50, 51. His political liberalism, 163

Labour, services of the Fathers and the Benedictines in making it honourable, ii. 231

La Boétie, his treatise on 'Voluntary Servitude,' ii. 199. His revolutionary declamations, quoted, 199, 200. His work adopted by the French Protestants in 1578, and recently by Lamennais, 200 Lactantius, his strong assertion of the iniquity of persecution, ii. 21. His peculiar notions, 22 note. His opinion that ecclesiastics should never cause the death of men, 33. His view of money-lending, 251

Lady-day, feast of Cybele formerly celebrated on, i. 224 Lamb, the symbol of Christ, condemned by a council 'In Trullo,' i. 247

La Mère Sotte, origin of, ii. 296 note Lamennais, M. de Montalembert's remarks on, as an heresiarch, i. 187 note. His attempt to associate Catholicity with the movement of modern civilisation, ii. 74

Landry, St., the apostle or charity in France, ii. 235

La Peyrère, his work on rationalistic biblical interpretation, i. 300. Analysis of his argument, 301 note. His denial of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, 302

Laplace, on the argument for design in the motions of the planets, i. 297 note. His review of Craig's theory of probabilities, 398 note

Las Casas advocated slavery, ii. 317. Defended by Grégoire, Bishop of Blois, &c., 317 note

Lateran, Third Council of, its endeavours to arrest the progress of usury, ii. 254

Lateran, Fourth Council of, its denunciation of heretics, ii. 39

Latimer, Bishop, his sermon describing the revolution of prices in England, ii. 316 note

Law in nature, gradual substitution of the conception of, for that of supernatural intervention, i. 286

Lawes, the composer, interred in Westminster Abbey, ii. 310 note

League, exultation of the, at the murder of Henry III., ii. 161

Leannain Sith, or familiar spirits, common among the Highlanders, i. 148 Learning, æsthetic effect of the revival of, i. 247

Le Coreur, on usury, ii. 257 note

Le Couvreur, the actress, ii. 305. Voltaire's ode to her memory, 305

Leibnitz's notions of eternal punishment, i. 338

Leith, nine women burnt for witchcraft at, in 1664, i. 148

Lemia, the sorceress, put to death, i. 42

Lentulus, proconsul of Judæa, forged letter of, on the personal appearance of Christ, i. 245 note

Leo I., Pope, burns the books of the Manichæans, ii. 119

Leo X., his munificence to artists, i. 259. Grounds upon which he condemned usury, ii. 251 note

Levitical laws, influence of, on Christian persecution, ii. 22. Regarded by Cyprian as the foundation of dealings with heretics, 28

Lessing, his principles of biblical criticism, i. 305

Libanius, his pleadings against the destruction of the temples in the country districts, ii. 27. His praise of pantomimic dances, 291

Liberty, religious, cursed by St. Augustine, ii. 32 note

Liberty, political, the teaching of the Fathers respecting rebellion favourable to liberty, ii. 139. As also the conflicts between the Pope and kings, 140

Life, insoluble problem of, i. 298

Lilith, the first wife of Adam, the queen of the succubi, i. 49 note

Lily, superstitious notion concerning, i. 225

Limbo, origin of pictures of the descent into, i. 222 note. Unbaptised children in, 360, 367

Limoges, goldsmiths' work of, i. 237 note

Linnæus, preposterous charge brought against his system, ii. 50 note

Llorente, his 'History of the Inquisition,' ii. 40 note

Locke, John, on the patristic miracles, i. 164, 166. On the belief in propositions contrary to reason, 172 note. Causes of his influence, 400. Carpings of the Tractarian party at his psychology, 403 note. His defence of religious liberty, ii. 87. His answer to Filmer's doctrine of passive obedience, 181, 182. On interest, ii. 259

Lombards, their trade in money, ii. 254. Their political economy, 282 note

Looking-glasses, ladies using, said by Clemens Alexandrinus to break the second commandment, i. 235 note

Lot. See Chance

Lowes, a Suffolk clergyman, put to death for witchcraft, i. 126

Loyola, Ignatius, sets a day apart for the meditation of eternal damnation, i. 326

Lucretius adopted the theory of spontaneous generation, i. 344

Luke, St., probable author of the portraits of, i. 312 note

'Lullaby,' supposed origin of the word, i. 49 note

Lulli, the musical composer, ii. 307

Luther, Martin, his superstitious credulity, i. 33. His sense of sin, 82. His belief in witchcraft, 83. His part in the Eucharistic controversy, 373. On salvation in the Church alone, 381. His declaration of predestinarianism, 385, 386 note. Asserts the right of the civil magistrate to punish heresy, ii. 50. His inclination to the despotic theory of government, 169

Lutheranism, almost silent evanescence of the distinctive mark of, 270. Coalescence of Lutherans and Calvinists in Prussia and other parts of Germany, 270 note

Luxembourg, Marshal of, his trial for sorcery, i. 118

Luxury, habits of, in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, ii. 274. Sumptuary laws, 274 and note. Influence of the black death, 275. Economical effects of luxury 276. Substitution of luxury for monasticism as a check upon population, 277. Influence of luxury on intellectual development, 278. And upon the character of public amusements, 285

Lycanthropy, belief in, i. 96, 97. Condemned by a canon of the Council of Ancyra, 96. Executions in France for lycanthropy in the first half of the seventeenth century, 117

Macaulay, Lord, his reason why the Puritans objected to bull-baiting, i. 308 note. On the servility of the Anglican Church, quoted, ii. 174 note

Machinery, movements in favour of manufactures stimulated by the invention of, ii. 332. Drawbacks to its advantages, 333

Magdalen hospitals unknown to the early Church, ii. 234 note

Magic, laws of the Romans against, i. 43. Character of, among the more civilised pagans, 43, 51. Its extraordinary importance in the patristic teaching, 51. The Emperor Constantine's severe law against secret magic, 52. The title 'enemies of the human race' transferred from the Christians to the magicians, 53. Laws of Constantius, 52. Scepticism the only true corrective for the evil, 54. The laws against magic suspended under Julian and Jovian, but afterwards renewed, 56. Causes of the worst outbreaks of these persecutions, 58. Pomponazzi's attempt to explain the phenomena of magic by the influence of the stars, 283 note. Transition of the old pagan worship from the sphere of religion into that of magic, ii. 43. Existence of prohibited pagan magical rites long aider the suppression of paganism, 44

Magnet, the discoveries of Gilbert respecting the, treated with contempt by Lord Bacon, i. 292 note

Mahometans, their raid against books on logic and philosophy, i. 73 note. Conception some centuries before the appearance of the doctrine in Christianity, 225 note

Mahometanism the sole example of a great religion restraining semi-barbarians from idolatry, i. 234. The deadly enemy of art, 236. The æsthetic genius exhibited in Mahometan architecture, 286. Mahometan slaves, ii. 238 note

Malebranche, his account of the decadence in the belief in witchcraft in his time, i. 116

Maleficiendo, Sprenger's derivation of the word, i. 87 note

'Malleus Maleficarum,' the works of inquisitors so called, i. 89 note

Malthus, his theory and its consequences, ii. 277

Man: the ancient notion of man's position in the universe displaced by astronomy, i. 283, 284. Effects of man's sin on the vegetable world, 283 note

Manichæism, outburst of, in the twelfth century, i. 71. Cardinal tenet of 240. The Mosaic cosmogony assailed by the Manichæans, 272. St. Augustine's treatise in answer, 273. Their doctrine respecting the Antipodes, 275. Their strange notion of the purification of the souls of the dead, 319 note. Their books burnt by Pope Leo I., ii. 118

Manners, the ferocity of, corrected by Christian charity, ii. 232

Mantua, Inquisition riots in, ii. 117

Manuscripts, beauty of the illuminations of, from the fifth to the tenth centuries, i. 237 note. Decline of the art from this period till the revival of painting, 237 note

Mar, earl of, bled to death for having consulted witches how to shorten the life of James II., i. 148 note

Marcellus, his death, ii. 35

Mariana, the Jesuit, his opposition to bullfighting in Spain, i. 308 note. Account of his work 'De Rege,' ii. 150

Mariolatry. See Virgin

Martin, St., of Tours, his denunciation of the execution of some heretics, ii. 33. His destruction of pagan temples, 33 note

Martyrdoms, only one or two representations of, in the catacombs, i. 212

Mary, Queen of Scots, her execution for idolatry advocated by Convocation, ii. 50 note

Maryland, religious liberty established in, by Lord Baltimore, ii. 59

Masques, English, ii. 301

Massachusetts, executions for witchcraft in, i. 33

Massalians, a sect of heretics, regard spitting as a religious exercise, i. 48

Massius, Bishop Gilbert, his portrait, i. 227 note

Materialism of the middle ages, i. 343. Two schools of, 343. Causes of the tendency towards, at the present day, 300; ii. 356

Mathematicus, a name given to astrologers, i. 65 note

Mather, Cotton, creates a panic respecting witchcraft in America. i. 137, 138

Matilda, Countess, influence of her tomb on the works of Nicolas of Pisa, i. 258

Matter, the essential evil of, the cardinal tenet of Gnosticism and Manichaæism. i. 240. Why matter attracts matter, an insoluble problem, 298. Relation of mind to matter, 298

Mayence, great numbers of Jews put to death in, i. 77

Mayence, a beggar put to death for sorcery at, in 1807, i. 30 note

Maynooth, college of, endowment of the, ii. 123

Mazarin, Cardinal, his letter to the bishop of Evreux on the execution of witches, i. 117

Mazarine library, Naudé the first librarian of the, i. 115 note

Medici, their archaeological collections, i. 258

Medici, the, give an intellectual ascendency to industry, ii. 282

Mediævalism, the sense of sin the chief moral agent of, ii. 196

Melanchthon, Philip, notions on withcraft i. 33 note. His remarks on the question of the cause of the difference of sex, i. 345. His predestinarian views, 386 note. His approval of the murder of Servetus, ii. 52. His definition of usury, 247 note

Melito, St., bishop of Sardis, his 'Clavis,' i. 273 note

Memory, cases of hyperæsthesia of the, ii. 97 note

Mesmer, the cures of, attributed to supernatural agency, i. 119

Mice, Van Helmont's receipt [sic: recipe?] for producing, i. 345 note. St. Augustine on the existence of, 345 note

Michael Angelo, his admiration for the torso Belvedere, i. 259. His Moses and David, 259 note. The secularisation of art represented to the highest degree by Michael Angelo, 261

Middleton, Dr. Conyers, his 'Free Inquiry into the Miraculous Powers,' &c., 166, 169. Discussion of his principles by Church, Dodwell, &c., 172

Milan Cathedral, ridicule with which it was regarded in the last century, i. 264 note. Inquisition riots in Milan, ii. 116

Milton, John, his advocacy of the rights of conscience, ii. 80 note, 81. His 'Areopagitica,' 81 note. His intolerance of Catholics, 82 and note. On regal power 181

Minerva, in Greek statues, a type of female modesty and self-control, i. 243

Miniature painting common long before the time of Cimabue, i. 237 note

Minos, character of the Greek representations of, i. 244

Minutius Felix, his remarks on eternal punishments, quoted, i. 317 note. His opinion of the dæmon of Socrates, 377 note

Miracles of the Church, i. 155. Views of Roman Catholics and Protestants respecting miracles, 155, 156. Miracles related by the Fathers and mediæval writers as undoubted and ordinary occurrences, 156 et seq. Rapid growth of scepticism on the subject since the Reformation, 159. General tone adopted by Roman Catholics respecting miracles, 100. Causes of the decline of the sense of the miraculous, 161. Disbelief in the miraculous in direct proportion to the progress of civilisation and diffusion of knowledge, 162. Effect of civilisation on contemporary as compared with historical miracles, 162. Persecution regarded by some English divines as a substitute for miracles, 164. Middleton's attack upon the veracity of the patristic miracles, 169. Epitome of the common arguments in favour of the cessation of miracles, 175. St. Augustine's belief in the miracles wrought by the relics of St. Stephen, 178 note. Aversion to the miraculous a distinctive mark of Rationalism, 183. Origin and decline of the evidential school in England, 189. Tendency among the evidential school to meet the Rationalists half way, 192. Summary of the stages of Rationalism in its relation to the miraculous, 193

Molière, denounced by the Church, ii. 306

Molina, his defence of tyrannicide, ii. 160

Molinæus, Carolus, his remarks on money-lending, quoted, ii. 256 note

Monasticism, its influence in stimulating persecution, ii. 34, 35. Enthusiasm of the first monks, 35. Substitution of luxury for monasticism as a check upon population, 277. Causes of the decadence of the monastic spirit, 279. Amusements in the monasteries, 293, 294. Effect of monasticism on the downfall of Spain, 316. Its incompatibility with industry, 317. Supremacy of asceticism till the fourteenth century, 348. The Therapeutes, 348 note. Decline of asceticism, 349, 351

Money-lending. See Interest; Usury

Monks, their influence in making labour honourable, ii. 232

Montaigne, his scepticism about witchcraft, i. 100 note. The first great sceptical writer in France, 111. An opponent of torture, 333 and note. His remarks on Castellio, ii. 56. His notice of the subordination of opinions to interests in France, 193. His political conservatism, 226

Montesquieu, his denunciation of torture, i. 333. His remarks on the scholastic writings on usury, ii. 253 note

'Monti di Pietà,' foundation of the, in Italy, ii. 249

Moors, influence on Christendom, ii. 284

Moralities See Plays, religious; Theatre

Morals: moral development accompanies the intellectual movement of societies, i. 306. Rewards and punishments more and more necessary as we descend the intellectual scale, 307. Illustrations of the nature of moral development, 307. Moral genius, 310. Relations of theology to morals, 310. Their complete separation in antiquity, 311. Originality of the moral type of Christianity, 311. Evanescence of duties unconnected with our moral nature, 314. Immorality not so severely condemned by theologians as error, 315 note. Injurious effect of the doctrine of exclusive salvation on, 389

More, Henry, his support of the views of Glanvil on witchcraft, i. 136

More, Sir Thomas, his fondness for cock-throwing, i. 307 note. Extols toleration in his 'Utopia,' ii. 59

Morellet, his translation of Beccaria, i. 334

Morocco, recent invasion of, by the Spaniards, religious fanaticism shown in the, ii. 110 note

Morton, Dr., saves the life of an alleged witch, i. 141

Morzines, the alleged supernatural causes of a recent epidemic at, i. 32 note

Mosaic work, Greek school of, established at Monte Cassino, i. 237. The earliest specimen of Christian mosaic, 237 note. Specimens in the church of St. Vitale at Ravenna, 237 note. The art lost for three centuries preceding, the establishment of the Monte Cassino school, 237 note

Moses, his rod a type of the Cross, according to Bede, i. 205 note

Moses striking the rock, early Christian symbol of, i. 216

Mothe, Huerne de la, his punishment for defending actors, ii. 307

Mothers, societies for the succour of indigent, ii. 234 note

Mun, Thomas, his defence of the mercantile system, ii. 327 note

Music, causes of the partial secularisation of, ii. 300. Its successive stages, 300

Musical instruments: origin of the organ, and its introduction into the Western Empire, i. 262. The hydraulicon, 262 note

Muzarelli on persecution, i. 165 note

Mysteries. See Plays, religious; Theatre

Mysticism of the fourteenth century, impulse given by it to psychology, i. 344. Its popularity in Germany, 344. The Bible of mysticism, 344

Nantes, Edict of, publication of the, ii. 69. Revocation of the, 69

Naples, resistance of the king and people of, to the Inquisition, ii. 113, 116

Nationalities, doctrine of the rights of, ii. 218

Naudé, his 'Apologie.' i. 115 note. His exposure of the Rosicrucians. 115 note. Becomes first librarian of the Mazarine library, 115 note. Reconstructs some of the dances of the ancients, 115 note

Navigation laws, origin of the, ii. 281

Neo-Platonists, their doctrines, i. 304

Nero, his attempt to relieve actors from the stigma attached to them, ii. 288 note

Nestorian controversy, discussions on the mystery of the Incarnation during the, i. 224, 364 note. Saying of Nestorius to the Emperor, ii. 22 note. The works of Nestorious prohibited by Theodosius, 119

Netherlands, all the inhabitants of the, condemned to death as heretics ii. 41 note. Love of free discussion early generated in, 119

Newton, Sir Isaac, his remarks on miracles, quoted, i. 166. His method and mental character opposed to those of Lord Bacon, 292 note

Newman, Dr., on pious frauds, quoted, i. 394 note

Nice, Council of, on usury, ii. 247 note

Nice, Second Council of, censures the heresy of the Iconoclasts, i. 230. Its decrees contemptuously stigmatised by Charlemagne and the Gallican Church, 231. Discussions connected with this council, 231 note

Nicephorus, notices the resemblance of Christ to his mother, i. 224 note

Nicodemus, apocryphal gospel of, its influence over Christian art, i. 222 note

Nicolas of Pisa, revives the study of ancient sculpture, i. 246, 258

Niebuhr, his remark on the Song of Solomon, ii. 53 note

Nightmare associated with the belief in demons, i. 49 note. Notion of the Greeks respecting nightmare, 50 note

Noah, Vesta his wife according to the Cabalists, i. 67 note. Symbol of receiving the dove into his breast, 216

Noodt, influence of the Roman law on his political teaching, ii. 194 and note

North, Dudley, his work on commerce, ii. 345 note

Novatians, allowed to celebrate their worship, ii. 27 note. Suppressed, 27 note

Nymphs, notions of the early Christians respecting them, i. 48

Obedience, passive, to established authority, ii. 136. Teaching of the Anglican Church on, 175, 176. Hooker's views, 179. Filmer's, 181. Views on the subject in the sixteenth century, 181 note. 'Bishop Overall's Convocation Book,' 183 note

Ochino, the Socinian, his dialogues translated by Castellio, ii. 53 note

O'Connell, Daniel, his efforts for religious liberty, ii. 125

Oldfield, Mrs., the actress, ii. 310 note

Opera, creation of the, ii. 301. In Italy, 301. in France and England, 301. The pestilence ascribed to it, 308

Ophites, their worship of the serpent, i. 220 note

Opinions, true causes of, ii. 20

Optatus, his grounds for advocating the massacre of the Donatists, ii. 23 note

Orange, the Roman theatre of, ii. 303 note

Oratorio, origin of the, ii. 301

Orcagna, his picture of Averroes, at Pisa, i. 71 note. His 'Triumph of Death,' 343 note

Organs, said to have been first used in the Greek Church, i. 262. The hydraulicon, 262 note. The bagpipe, 262 note

Origen, his school of allegorical Scriptural interpretation, i. 272. His disbelief in eternal punishments, 316. His notion of the soul, 342. Associates the doctrine of infant baptism with that of preëxistence, 362. His views of the condemnation of all external to the Church, 376

Orleans, duke of, justification of the murder of, by Jean Petit, ii. 158

Orpheus, regarded as a symbol of the attractive power of Christianity, i. 214

Oxford, University of, its opposition to almost every step made by English intellect in connection with theology, i. 173. Instances of this opposition in the cases of the Test Act and Catholic Emancipation, and in the great reactionary movement begun in 1833, 173, 174. Opposition of the University of Oxford to religious liberty, ii. 86. Doctrine of passive obedience laid down by the, 175 note. Its decree on this subject burnt by the House of Lords, 177

Paganism, how regarded by the early Christians, i. 45. The immediate objects of the devotions of the pagan world according to the Neo-Platonic School, 46. Laws of Constantine and Constantius, 52. Compromise between Christianity and paganism, 59. Continuance of the pagan rites in the form of magic, 60. Exorcists among the pagans, 156 note. Effect of pagan traditions upon early Christian art, 211. Sentiments of the Fathers on the damnation of the heathen, 377. Policy of Constantine towards the pagans, ii. 23. Position of the pagans and of the government towards them at this period, 25. Review of their condition before the time of Theodosius, 26. Destruction of their temples in the country districts, 26. Prohibitions of Theodosius the Great, 27. Destruction of temples by St. Martin of Tours, 33 note. Ruin of paganism, 35. The pagan parallels to the Ctristian martyrs, 102. Type of character formed by pagan patriotism, 102. Synthesis of the moral principles of Christianity and paganism, 220. The theatre the last refuge of paganism, 289

Painting, a faithful mirror of the popular mind, before the invention of printing, i. 74 note. Its influence in strengthening the worship of the Virgin, 224. Peculiar characteristics, and chief causes of artistic perfection of later Italian works, 253. Sensuality favourable to painting, 253. Influence of Venetian sensuality, 254. Discovery of oil colours, 255 note. Their introduction into Italy, 256. Complete secularisation of the art after the death of Savonarola, 261. Devotion of the monks of St. Basil to painting, ii. 232

Palestrina, his Church music, ii. 301

Palmer, Mr., his collection of evidence on the views of the Fathers as to original sin, i. 377 note

Pan, Greek statues of, i. 229 note

Paneas in Phœnicia, the miraculous image of Christ at, i. 229

Pantomimic dances, Libanius' praise of, ii. 291. Origin of pantomime in Italy, 297

Paracelsus, his belief in the existence of sylphs, &c., i. 67 note. His attempt to overcome the popular superstitions respecting comets. 291

Paramo, an Inquisitor, his remark on the Inquisition, ii. 42 note

Paris, great numbers of witches put to death in, i. 30

Pâris, Abbé, miracles at the tomb of, i. 180

Parma, Inquisition riots in, ii. 116

Pascal, Blaise, on the necessity of infant baptism, i. 366 note. On the utter vanity of philosophy, 370 note. His doctrine of probabilities applied to religious systems, 398

Patriotism, one of the chief moral principles of society, ii. 102. Type of character it formed, 103. Greatest vice of ancient patriotism, 104. Patriotism the moral principle of Judaism, 104, 106. In the Roman Empire, 106. Correspondence of patriotism to the spirit of sect in religion, 106. Incompatibility of sectarianism with patriotism, 186

Paul II., Pope, his persecution of artists at Rome, i. 259

Paul IV., Pope, originates the 'Index Expurgatorius,' ii. 119

Paul the Hermit, miracles related of, i. 156

Paulinus, bishop of Nola, said to have invented church bells, i. 262

Pavia, fresco in the monastery of, i. 325

Peacock, the symbol of immortality among pagans and the early Christians, i. 213 Why so regarded, 213, 214 note

Pelagius, his view of infant baptism i. 361

Penni Code, relations between the prevailing sense of the enormity of sin and the severity of the, i. 336. Tendency of all penal systems under the influence of the clergy, 336 note. Constant tendency in the advance of civilisation to mitigate the severity of penal codes, 336. Part taken by theologians in mitigating the penal code, 349. Influence of Beccaria, 350

Penance, public, question of the right of the Pope to condemn criminals to, ii. 143

Pentateuch, the Mosaic authorship of the, denied by La Peyrère, i. 302

Perez, Antonio, famous prosecution of ii. 113

Periander, tyrant of Corinth, story of Herodotus of, i. 320 note

Perron, Cardinal, his assertion of Ultramontane principles, ii. 165

Persecution, religious, revival of, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, i. 74. Regarded by some English divines as a substitute the miracles, 156. The emotional antecedent of persecution, 331. Persecution the result of the principles professed by the persecutors, 350. The history or persecution, ii. 11 et seq. Injury done to industry by persecution, 273

Persians, influence of the national religion on the art of the ancient, i. 209, 210 note

Perugino, his scepticism, i. 261

Pestilences, effects of, on the superstitions of the dark ages, i. 63. Said to have been produced by the power of the devil, 92

Peter of Apono, denied the existence of demons and miracles, i. 103 note. Accused of magic, 103 note

Peter, St., with the wand of power, early Christian symbol of, i. 216

Petit, Jean, justifies the murder of the Duke of Orleans, ii. 159. His justification denounced by Gerson and the Council of Constance, 159

Petrarch gives an impulse to archæological collections, i. 258

Phidias, his colossal statue of Jupiter Olympus, i. 258

Philanthropy, boundless, of modern Christianity, i. 349

Philip II. of Spain, Dutch heretics put to death during his reign, ii. 41

Philip Neri, St., originates the oratorio, ii. 301

Philosophers charged by the Abbé Fiard with being the representatives of the old sorcerers, i. 119

Philosophy, moral, its progress one of the causes of the decline of the mediæval notions of hell, i. 338. The sense of virtue appealed to most strongly by the philosophies of Greece and Rome, 356. Revival of the sense of truth due to the secular philosophers of the seventeenth century, 399 The superiority of the inductive method asserted by Leonardo da Vinci, 400. Ramus and Bruno, 401. The decline of theological belief a necessary antecedent of the success of the inductive method, 402, 403. De Maistre's remarks on Locke and Bacon's philosophy, 403 note. Aversion of the Tractarian party to both, 403 note

Phryne, the mistress of Praxiteles, i. 256 note

Pichler, his views on usury, ii. 257

Pictures, stages of the veneration for, i. 223. Decree of the Council of Illiberis against pictures in churches, 229. Admitted by the Greeks into their churches, 230. The introduction of pictures into their churches forbidden by the Christians of Alexandria, 233

Pinel, the philosophy of madness mainly due to, i. 36

Piracy, suppression of, by the Hanseatic League, it, 282

Pius V., Pope, his prohibition of bull-fighting, i. 308 note

Plague, the, attributed to the theatres, ii. 308 note

Plato, infiueneo of his philosophy in favouring a belief in evil spirits, i. 43. His notion of hell, 319. His denunciation of trade, ii. 224

Platonists, their idea of the soul, i. 340, 341 note

Plays, religious, rise of the, ii. 293. Account of them, 293. Their immorality, 295. The great 'passion play' of Oberammergau, 299 note

Plotinus, a Neo-Platonic Philosopher, ashamed of possessing a body, i. 240

Plunket, the Act of Union, ii. 182 note

Pluto, Greek representations of i. 244

Political economy, influence of, on democracy, ii. 207. Free-trade notions in France before the 'Wealth of Nations,' 208. Enlightened views of the Venetians 282; of the Lombards, 282 note. The first professorship founded at Naples, 283 note. Schools of Sully and Colbert, 326, 327. That of Quesnay, 327. Berkeley's exposition of the true nature of money, 328 note. Error of the French economists, 328. Adam Smith on manufactures and agriculture, 328. Raynal's views, 329. Ricardo, 331. Invention of credit, 332. Political economy an expression of an in dustrial civilisation 335. Its pacific influence, 335, 340. Scheme of progress revealed by political economy, 348, 350

Politics, secularisation of, ii. 69 et seq. Polo, Marco, his notice of tea in the thirteenth century, ii. 322

Polycarp, St., miracle of, i. 168 Polycles, the sculptor, introduces the hermaphrodite into art, i. 256 note

Pomponatius, his speculations, i. 370

Pope, decline of the temporal power of the, ii. 130. Causes of its decline, 130. Origin of his power in Rome, 140. The Pope's power of deposing sovereigns. 142, 146. Moral authority necessarily with the Pope, 142, 143. His right to condemn criminals to public penance, 143. His power over the temporal possessions of princes denied by William Barclay, 164. Attitude of the Protestants of France in 1615 on this question, 165

Population, doctrine of Malthus on, ii. 277 Substitution of luxury for monasticism as a check upon, ii. 277

Positivism, first principles of, ii. 356 note. Character of the leading positivists 356 note

Possada, Father, his opposition to the theatre, ii. 308 note

Potters, Abyssinian superstition respecting i. 67 note

Poverty, cause of the decline of the ideal of, ii. 274

Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, his advocacy of sedition and tyrannicide, ii. 174 note

Praxiteles, Titian compared with, i. 256. Said to have definitively given the character of sensuality to Venus, 256 note

Predestinarianism, influence of the doctrine of exclusive salvation on, i. 383. Calvin's theory of, substantially held by St. Augustine, 383. Luther's declaration and Erasmus's opposition, 385. The doctrine of double predestination held in the ninth century, 385 note. Views of Melanchthon, 386 note. Calvin and Beza, 387 note. The doctrine assailed, ii. 54

Presbyterianism, persecuted in Scotland, ii. 48. Intolerance of the Presbyterians in England in the seventeenth century, 79. Efforts of the Scotch to suppress liberty of conscience, 80 note. Its tendency compared with that of Episcopalianism, 168

Prickers of witches, profession of, in Scotland, i. 146

Printing, servitude and superstition abolished by, ii. 203, 204

Proast, Archdeacon, his opposition to religious liberty, ii. 87

Protestants, their distrust and aversion for contemporary miracles, i. 155, 156, 163. Their views respecting historical miracles, 163

Protestantism: causes of the extraordinary strides made by Rationalism in most Protestant countries, i. 181. The dogmatic forms of Protestantism of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries superseded by Protestant Rationalism, 184. Dogmatic charactcr of early Protestantism, i. 369. The representatives of Rationalism in the first period of Protestantism: Socinus and Zuinglius, 369. Success of persecution in extirpating Protestantism from Spain and France. ii. 14. Protestant persccutions compared with that of Catholicism, 57 et seq. In Protestant countries, tolerance the result and measure of the advance of Rationalism, 75. Attitude of the Protestants in France in 1615 respecting the Papal power, 165. Democracy favoured by Protestantism, 167. Place of Protestantism in the development of English liberty, 183. Two distinct currents in the political teaching of the French Protestants, 186. Circumstances that diminish the influence of the French Protestants, 187

Prounice, the, of the Gnostics, i. 221. Confounded with Beronice, 221 note

Prussia, abolition of torture in, i. 334

Prynne's 'Histriomastix,' ii. 354 note

Psellus, Michael, 'On the Operation of Demons' i. 68

'Pseudomonarchia Dæmonum,' notice of the, i. 107

Psychology, development of, one of the causes of the decline of the mediæval notions of hell, i. 339. Impulse given to psychology by Averroes, 343. And by the Mystics of the fourteenth century, 344

Punishments, the, employed by the Romans against the magicians, i. 54

Purgatory, doctrine of, i. 320

Puritans, their belief in witchcraft during the Commonwealth, i. 125, 126. Their prosecutions for witchcraft in America, 137, 138. Scotch witchcraft the result of Scotch Puritanism, 149. Reason, according to Macaulay, why they objected to bull-baiting, 308 note. Their intolerance in Maryland, ii. 59. Debt England owes to the Puritans, 173

Pythagoras, his elaboration of a doctrine of hell, i. 319

Pythagoreans, theory of the, respecting the rise of religions, i. 304

Quakerism, religious toleration of; ii. 84

Quesnay, the school of, ii. 327

Rabelais, his ridicule of the attempt to mould the classical writings into the image of mediævalism, ii. 198 note

Racine, his fear of the censure of the Church, ii. 301

Ramus, his philosophical speculations, i. 401. His end, 401

Raphael, his portrait of Savonarola, i. 261

Rationalism: first evidence of a Rationalistic spirit in Europe, i. 103. Development of Continental Protestantism into Rationalism. 181. Aversion to the miraculous, a distinctive mark of Rationalism, 183. Rationalistic tendencies in Roman Catholic countries, 184. Tendency of the Evidential school to meet the Rationalists half-way, 192. Summary of the stages of Rationalism in its relation to the miraculous, 193. Its influence on Christianity, 199. Æsthetic, scientific, and moral developments of Rationalism. 202. Results from the totality of the influences of civilisation, 271. And from the encroachment of physical science on the old conceptions of the government of the universe, 271. Socinus and Zuinglius the representatives of Rationalism in the first period of Protestantism, 369. Antecedents of Italian Rationalism, 370. In Protestant countries, tolerance the result and measure of Rationalism, 370. Review of the influence of Rationalism on the method of inquiry, ii. 90-99. Relations of the Rationalistic movement to the political and economical history of Europe, 100. Secularisation of politics, 101 et seq. The industrial history of Rationalism, 222 et seq.

Ravenna, fine specimens of Greek mosaics at, i. 237 note. Church of St. Vitale at, built by Greek architects, 244 note

Raynal, his political economy, ii. 329

Reason, Lessing's rejection of all doctrine which does not accord with, i. 305. Kant's 'Religion within the Limits of Reason,' 305 note

Rebellion, sinfulness of, according to the Fathers, ii. 136

'Rebellion, Homily on Wilful,' quoted, ii. 175

Recitative, in music, invention of, ii. 301

Reformation, its influence in emancipating the mind from all superstitious terrors, i. 79. And in stimulating witchcraft, 79 True causes of the Reformation. 267. Conflicting tendencies produced by the, on the subject of infant baptism, 366. Variety of interests and of political opinions produced by the Reformation, ii. 146, 147. Shakes the old superstition respecting usury, 255, 256 Regency, the, in France, ii. 70

Regency, the, in France, ii. 70

Relics, virtues attributed to, in the middle ages, i. 158. St. Augustine's belief in the miracles wrought by the relics of St. Stephen, 178 note. Origin of the Roman Catholic custom of placing relics of martyrs beneath the altars of churches, 211 note. The consecration of churches without relics forbidden, 211 note. Stages of the veneration of relics, 228

Religion, terror everywhere the beginning of, i. 41. The theories of the rise of, 303. The theory of Euhemerus, 303, 304. The mythical method, 304. Locke's adoption of the theory of Euhemerus, 304 note. Destruction of natural religion by the conception of hell, 323. The sense of virtue and the sense of sin the foundation of all religious systems, 356

Religious disabilities, abolition of the system of, ii. 120, 121

Remy, a judge of Nancy, his execution of witches, i. 30

Renan, M., on the lives of saints, quoted, i. 156 note

Resurrection, the pagan masks of the Sun and Moon, the emblems of the, i. 215

Reuchlin saves the literature of the Jews from destruction, ii. 119

Rienzi, gives an impulse to archæological collections, i. 258

'Rituel Auscitain,' the, on possession, i. 30 note

Rizzi, Francesco, his picture of a Spanish auto da fé, ii. 116 note

Rochctte, Raoul, his 'Cours d'Archéologie,' i. 238 note

Roman law, effects of the renewed study of the, in the middle ages, ii. 194

Romans, belief of the ancient, in evil spirits and sorcery, i. 42. Laws of the later Romans against magic, 43

Rome, influence of Indian dresses upon the art of, in the time of Augustus, i. 255 note. Effect of the barbarian invasion of, upon art, 258. Small collection of antiquities at Rome, in the beginning of the fifteenth century, 259. The great bull-fight in the Coliseum in 1333, 308 note. Inquisition riots in, ii. 117. Few instances of the burning of heretics in, 117 note. Hopeless decrepitude and impotence of the present government of Rome, 129. Industrial pursuits, how regarded in Rome, 224. Atrocious excesses to which the empire arrived, 226. Money-lending in ancient Rome, 244. Cause of the decline of the theatre in Rome, 291. The opera publicly sanctioned in Rome, 309

Roscius, the actor, ii. 285 note

Rosicrucians, Naudé's work on, i. 115 note

Rouen, address of the parliament of, to the king on sorcery, 118. Its ancient manufacture of church ornaments, 237 note

Rousseau, J. J., his justification of intolerance, ii. 72. His power over French society, 213-216. His doctrine of the 'social contract,' 216

Royal Society, its indirect influence on the decline of the belief in witchcraft, i. 128 note. Foundation of the, 292

Russia, abolition of torture in, i. 334

Sa, Emmanuel, his defence of tyrannicide, ii. 159, 160

Sabbath, the witches', i. 94

Saint Hubert, Madame, the first actress to take the ancient sculptures as her model, ii. 215 note

Saints, multitude of miracles attributed to, i. 158. The Bollandist collection at Antwerp, 158 note. Worship of 227. Stages of the veneration of the relics of saints, 228

Salamanders, intercourse of philosophers with, i. 49 note

Salmasius, works of, in defence of interest, ii. 256

Salvation, the doctrine of exclusive. See Sin, Original

Sancroft, Archbishop, effect of his publication of 'Bishop-Overall's Convocation Book,' ii. 183 note

Saragossa, miracle of the Virgin of the Pillar at, i. 157

Satan. See Devil

Savages, their universal belief in witchcraft, i. 41. Causes of this, 41

Savonarola leads a reaction in favour of spiritualism in art, i. 260. His portrait painted by Raphael, 261

Savoy, execution of witches in, i. 31. Especially subject to the influence of witches, 31 note

'Scaligeriana' on the slow burning of heretics, quoted, i. 331 note

Scepticism, the only true corrective for the belief in evil of magic, i. 54. Increase of, in the middle ages, 250

Science: Encroachments of physical science on the old conceptions of the government of the universe, i. 271. Science subordinated in the early church to systems of scriptural interpretation, 271, 272. Obstacles cast in the way of science by theology, 281. Subsequent regeneration of physical science, 283. Influence of astronomy, 283. And of geology, 285. Gradual substitution of the conception of law for that of supernatural intervention, 286. Irreligious character attributed to scientific explanations, 288. De Maistre on the science of the ancients, quoted, 288 note. Cosmas on earthquakes, 288 note. Difference between the conception of the Divinity in a scientific and an unscientific age, 288. Causes of the growth of astronomy, 288. Influence of the writings of Bacon, 292. Rise of scientific academies, 292. The morphological theory of the universe, 294. Its effects upon history, 295. Influences of physical science over speculative opinions, 296. Illegitimate effects of science, 299. Effects of science upon belief, 300. And on Biblical interpretation, 300

Sciences, Academy of, at Parrs, establishment of the, i. 292

Scotland, extreme atrocity of the persecutions for witchcraft in, i. 142-150. Persecution of Presbyterians in, ii. 48. And of Catholics, 48, 49. Efforts of the Scotch to suppress liberty of conscience, 79 note. Establishment of the Scottish Kirk, 87. Political liberalism of Scotland, 169. Knox, 170. Buchanan, 171. Answer of the Scotch deputation to Queen Elizabeth, 172. English Dissenters assimilated to the Scotch, 173. Existence of serfdom in Scotland as late as 1775, 239. Sumptuary laws in the fourteenth century, 275 note

Scott, Reginald, his 'Discovery of Witchcraft,' i. 122

Scotus Erigena, John, his disbelief in the doctrine of hell-fire, i. 320. Translates the writings of Denys the Areopagite, 344. Opposes Gotteschalk's doctrine of double predestination, 385 note

Scriptural interpretation: Swedenborg's 'Doctrine of Correspondences,' i. 272. Allegorical school of Origen, 272. The 'Clavis' of St. Melito, 272 note. Objections of the Manichæans to the literal interpretation of Genesis, 272. Answered by St. Augustine, 273. The literal school, 274. The 'Topographia Christiana,' 276. Influence of science upon Biblical interpretation, 300. The earliest example of rationalistic biblical interpretation, 300. Disintegrating and destructive criticism, 305. Lessing and Kant's principles, 305

Sculpture, the most ancient kinds of, i. 242. Alleged decadence of Greek sculpture from Phidias to Praxiteles, 253 note. Parallel of Titian and Praxiteles, 254 note. History of Greek statues after the rise of Christianity, 257, 258. Nicholas of Pisa and his works, 258. First development of sculpture in Rome, ii. 102 note

Sectarianism in Ireland, ii. 186. Its incompatibility with patriotism, 186

Séguier, the Chancellor, his enthusiastic patronage of tea in the seventeenth century, ii. 322

Selden on witchcraft, i. 125

Self-sacrifice, great development of, by Christianity, ii. 237. Decline of the spirit of, 354

Seneca on the duties of masters towards their slaves, ii. 228

Sensuality, influence of, upon art, i. 255

Serfdom which followed slavery, ii. 238, 289. Manumission enforced as a duty upon laymen, 239 note. Serfdom in Scotland in 1775, 239

Serpent, the, worshipped by the Ophites, i. 220 note. Adopted as the emblem of healing, 200 note. The old Egyptian symbol of a serpent with a hawk's head, 220 note

Serra on political economy, ii. 283 note

Servetus, his death, ii. 49. Calvin applauded for the crime, 52. Denounced by Castellio, 54. But justified by Beza, 56

Sessa on the Jews, ii. 265 note

Sforza, Francis, Duke of Milan, the first to establish a resident ambassador, ii. 282 note Shaftesbury, Lord, neglect into which his writings have fallen i. 190. His denunciation of Christianity as incompatible with freedom, ii. 138

Shakspeare, his notices of witchcratft, i. 124

Sherlock, Dr., his disregard of the doctrine of passive obedience, ii. 183 note

Silvanus, St., bishop of Nazareth, calumniated by the devil, i. 100 note

Simancas, Bishop, on torture, i. 334 note. On faith with heretics, 394 note. On the influence of the Levitical laws on Christian persecution, ii. 22 note

Simon Magus, his introduction of the woman Helena as the incarnation of the Divine Thought, i. 220

Sin, the sense of, appealed most strongly to, by Christianity, i. 356. The conception of hereditary guilt, 357. Original, the doctrine of, rejected by Socinus, 372. And by Zuinglius, 373. Views of Chillingworth and Jeremy Taylor, 374 note. The scope of the doctrine of the condemnation of all men extends to adults, 376. Views of the Fathers on the subject, 377. Effects of this doctrine, 380 et seq. The sense of sin the chief moral agent of the middle ages, ii. 197

Sinclair, professor of moral philosophy at Glasgow, his belief in witchcraft, i. 148 note

Sixtus V. applauds the assassin Clément for his murder of henri III., ii. 161

Slavery, the unchristian character of, strongly asserted by Wycliff, ii. 168. Slavery the basis of the industrial system of antiquity, 223. Effects of this institution on national character, 223. Comparison between ancient and modern slavery, 225. Its abolition undertaken by Christianity 227. First movement in favour of the slaves due to Seneca and his followers, 228. The invasion of the Barbarians in Italy favourable to the slaves, 228. But Christianity the most efficient opponent of the evil, 228. Review of the measures for abolishing slavery, 229. Jewish slave-dealers, 230. The Emperor Gratian's barbarous slave law, 230 note. Slavery gradually fades into serfdom, 230. Anglo-Saxon measures for alleviating the condition of slaves, 231. Sale of English slaves to the Irish, 238 note. Slaves in Italy in the thirteenth century, 239 note. Christian, Jewish, and Mohammedan slaves, 239 note. Effect of slavery upon the Spanish character, 317. Negro slaves introduced into the West Indies and America, 317, 318. John Hawkins and the slave trade, 318. The slave trade first unequivocally condemned by the Spanish Dominican Soto, 318 note

Sleep, connection of latent consciousness with, ii. 97 note

Smith, Adam, on usury, ii. 259. On manufactures and agriculture, 328-330

Smollett, Tobias, his remarks on York Minster and Durham Cathedral, i. 264 note 'Social contract,' the doctrine of the, as elaborated by the Jesuits, ii. 148

Socinianism: position assigned to Socinians by Bossuet, ii. 60

Socinus, Faustus, unfavourable to political liberty, ii. 212. His career compared with that of Zuinglius, i. 372. Rejccts original sin, 372. Distinctively the apostle of toleration, ii. 51

Socrates, his idea of the soul, i. 340

'Solomon, Song of,' regarded by Castellio as simply a love song, ii. 53. Niebuhr's remark on it, 53 note

Somers, Lord, his defence of religious liberty, ii. 87

Somnambulism: the belief that somnambulists had been baptised by drunken priests, i. 364 note

Soothsayers, laws of the later Romans against, i. 43

Sophia, the, of the Gnostics, i. 221 note

Sorbonne, its declarations of the independence of the civil power, ii. 166. Its decision upon usury, ii. 248 note

Sorcery. See Witchcraft

Sortes and sortilegi, origin of the words, i. 287 note

Soto, the Spanish Dominican the first who unequivocally condemned the slave trade, ii. 318 note

Soubervies, the, put a woman to death for witchcraft, i. 30 note

Soul, the development of a purely spiritual conception of the, one of the causes of the decline of the mediæval notions of hell, i. 339. Idea of the Platonists of a soul, 339. Opinions of the Fathers as to the form of the soul, 341 note

Spain, numbers of sorcerers put to death in, i. 30. Abolition of torture in, 333. Introduction and progress of the Inquisition in, ii. 113 et seq. The Spanish Moors, 266. The plays of Calderon and the drama in Spain, 307. The sceptre of industry almost in the grasp of Spain, 311. Magnificent position of that country under Charles V., 311. Speedy eclipse of her prosperity, 312. Causes of the downfall of Spain, 314

Sphinx, the, believed by some of the early Christians to be connected with their faith, i. 214 note

Spins on the opposition offered to the executions in Italy for witchcraft, i. 105

Spitting, a religious exercise, i. 48 note

Spratt, Thomas, bishop of Rochester, endeavours to bring theology into harmony with the Baconian philosophy, i. 131. On the miraculous, 161 note

Sprenger, the inquisitor, ascribes William Tell's shot to the assistance of the devil, i. 31. Commissioned by Pope Innocent VIII., 32. Sprenger's book on sorcery, 32. His etymological blunders, 87

Stag, the, a symbol of Christ, i. 224. Pagan and middle-age legends respecting the, 224 note

Stahl, his psychology, i. 346 note

Star Chamber, its suppression of heretical books, ii. 119

Starovertsis, in Russia, their views of the sinfulness of usury, ii. 260

Statues, wooden, of Spain, i. 238

Strauss, his remarks on miracles quoted, i. 183 note

Suarez, the Jesuit, his work 'De Fide' burnt in Paris, i. 147. Origin of the work, 148 note. Condemnation of his book by a synod of Tonneins, 186, 187

Succubi, or female devils, according to the early Christians, i. 48 note. Lilith, the first wife of Adam, the queen of, 49 note. Succubi, called Leannain Sith, common among Highlanders, 148 note

Suffering, tendency of the constant contemplation of, to blunt the affections, i. 324

Sully, his opposition to manufactures, ii. 326

Sumptuary laws of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, ii. 274

Supernatural, influences of the, upon savages, i. 41, 42

Superstition, pagan, existence of, from the sixth to the twelfth century, i. 61

Supremacy, the oath of, compulsory under pain of death, ii. 47 note

Sweden, sorcerers put to death in, in 1670, i. 31. Combination of devotion and immorality in, 391. Protestant persecutions in, ii. 49. Intolerance of, at the present time, 89

Swedenborg, Emanuel, his 'Doctrine of Correspondences,' i. 272

Swinden contends that the locality of hell is in the sun, i. 347 note

Swiss, their morality and irreligion, i. 392 note

Switzerland, great numbers of witches put to death in, i. 31. Protestant persecutions in, ii. 49

Sylphs, intercourse of philosophers with, i. 49 note. Belief of the Cabalists in the existence of, 66

Sylvans, the, of the pagans, regarded by the early Christians as devils, i. 49

Sylvester II., regarded as a magician, i. 282. Account of him and of his works, 282 note

Symbolism, great love of, evinced by the art of the Catacombs, i. 213. The peacock the symbol of immortality, 213. And Orpheus, of the attractive power of Christianity, 214. Mercury, Hercules, and the Sphinx, 214 note. The masks of the sun and moon, 214. The genii of the seasons and guardian angels, 214. The fish an emblem of Christ, 215. The stag employed for the same purpose, 215. Repetition of symbolical subjects from the Bible, 216. St. Melito's catalogue of birds, beasts, plants, &c., which are to be regarded as Christian symbols, 273 note

Syria, massacres in, ii. 45

Taliamans for baffling the devices of the devil, i. 63

Talma, his improvements in stage representations, ii. 215

Tanner, his views on usury, ii. 257

'Tartuffe,' Molière's, origin of some of the incidents and speeches of, ii. 300 note

Tau, why reverenced by the early Christians, i. 205 note

Taylor, Isaac, on patristic writings, i. 178 note

Taylor, Jeremy, rejects the doctrine of original sin, i. 374 note. His remarks on the separation of Christ from the intolerance of Judaism, ii. 21 note. His advocacy of religious liberty, 82. His 'Liberty of Prophesying,' 82. Arguments on which he based his claims for toleration, 83. Coleridge's remarks on him, 84 note. On passive obedience, 176

Tea, importation of, into Europe, ii. 321

Telemachus, the monk, ii. 234

Tell, William, his successful shot ascribed by Sprenger to the devil, i. 31 note

Tempests, power of producing, attributed to the devil and to witches, i. 9l

Templars, the, accused of sorcery, i. 31 note

Terror everywhere the beginning of religion, i. 40. Causes which produced in the twelfth century a spirit of rebellion which was encountered by terrorism, i. 73. History of religions terrorism, 315 et seq. See Hell

Tertullian on the demons supposed to exist in his time, i. 47. His treatise 'De Coronâ,' 50. Against pictures, 235 note. Effect of the doctrine of eternal punishment on his character, 327, 329 note. His denial of the existence in man of any incorporeal element, 342. His denunciation of the pagan practice of destroying the fœtus in the womb, 364 note. His advocacy of absolute and complete toleration, ii. 21. His opinion that ecclesiastics should never cause the death of men, 33. His denunciation of the theatre, 289

Thales regards water as the origin of all things, i. 206 note

Theatre, revolutions in the, in France, ii. 215. Its influence upon national tastes, 286. Contrast between the theatres of the Greeks and Romans, 287. Stigma attached to actors in ancient times, 288. Denunciation of the theatre by the fathers, 289. The theatre the last refuge of paganism, 289. Rise of the religious plays, 293. Faint signs of secular plays: impromptus, pantomimes, &c 297. Creation of plays of a higher order, 298. Italian dramas, 299. French, 299. Influence of music, 299. And of Gothic architecture, 300. Shape of the stage in ancient and modern times, 303. Causes of a revulsion in the sentiments with which the theatre was regarded, 304. Fierce opposition of the Church in France, 306. The theatre in Spain and Italy, 307, 308. Important effects of the contest between the church and the theatre, 309, 310

Theodosius, the Emperor, his prohibition of every portion of the pagan worship, i. 59. Commands monks to betake themselves to desert places, 249 note. Annexes the penalty of death to the profession of a heresy, ii. 23 note. Prohibits all forms of heretical and pagan worship, 27. And the works of Nestorius and Eutyches, 118

Theology, influence of Dante over the conceptions of, i. 248. Distinction between theology and science unfelt in the time of Cosmas, 279. Dawn of the distinction between them, 279 note. Influence of theology on, and obstacles cast in the way of, science, 281. Relations of theology to morals, 310. Their complete separation in antiquity, 311. The decline of theological belief a necessary antecedent of the success of the philosophers of the seventeenth century, 404. Theological interests gradually cease to be a main object of political combinations, ii. 102. The declining influence of theology shown by the religious wars of the Reformation, 109. Action of political life on the theological habits of thought, 130. The stream of self-sacrifice passing from theology to politics, 217. Points of contact of industrial and theological enterprises, 241. Influence of industry upon theological judements, 273. Theological agencies not pacific, 336

Therapeutes, the, mentioned by Philo, ii. 346 note

Theta, why regarded as the unlucky letter, i. 205 note

Timanthes, his sacrifice of lphigenia, i. 239 note

Tindal, his works in defence of liberty, ii. 184 note

Titian, compared with Praxiteles, i. 256

Toland, his 'Anglica Libera,' ii. 185 note. His other works, 185 note

Toledo, supposed to be the headquarters of sorcerers in Spain, i. 30 note

Toleration, assertion of, by Zuinglius and Socinus, ii. 51. Toleration favoured by the mingling of religions produced by the Reformation, 62. And by the marriage of the clergy, 62. And by the greater flexibility of Protestantism, 62. Sketch of the history of toleration in France, 63-74. The absolute unlawfulness of toleration maintained by Bishop Bilson, 47 note. The duty of absolute toleration preached for the first time in Christendom, 54. Toleration extolled and upheld by Erasmus, Sir T. More, Hôpital, and Lord Baltimore, 59. Sketch of the history of toleration in England, 75-86. Intolerance in Sweden at the present day, 89. The basis of modern tolerance advocated in favour of the Inquisition, 115. Literary censorship exercised against heretical writings, 118. Removal of religious disabilities in England and Ireland, 121-125. Influence of commerce in leading men to tolerance, 262. Effect of religious intolerance on the downfall of Spain, 319

Toleration Act, passing of the, ii. 86, 87

Toletus, Franciscus, his justification of tyrrannicide, ii. 159

Tonneins, synod of, its condemnation of the work of Suarez, ii. 186, 187 note

Torquemada, his attempts to extirpate witchcraft in Spain, i. 30. Procures an edict expelling the Jews from Spain, ii. 267

Torture, illegality of, in England, i. 122. A horrible case of, presided over by James I, 123 note. Tortures to compel confession of witches in Scotland, 147. In Greece and Rome, 332. Extent to which it was carried by mediæval Christendom, 332 note. Marsilius' invention of a torture depriving the prisoner of all sleep, 332 note. Illegality of torture in England, 333. Extent to which it was employed by Catholics under Mary, 333 note. And by Protestants, 333 note. Abolished in France, Spain, Italy, Russia, Prussia, and Tuscany, 334. St. Augustine's statement of the case against torture, 335 note. Causes which produced the feeling against torture, 335. Torture of heretics enjoined by Pope Innocent IV., ii. 42 note. Torture applied to the investigation of charges of usury, 250

Toulouse, number of sorcerers put to death at, in one time, i. 29. Four hundred witches burnt in the square of, ii. 46

Towns, modern industrial history begun by the emancipation of the, ii. 240. Privileges of burghers in the middle ages, 239 note. Importance of corporations and guilds in the middle ages, 240. The conflict between the towns and the country, ii. 324. Changes effected in their relative importance, 325

Tractarian movement, i. 173, 180, 181

Trent, Council of, on infant baptism, i. 366

Trèves, vast number of witches burnt at, i. 29

Trinity, first Person of the, Roman Catholic representations of, all comparatively modern, i. 216

'Truce of God,' the, proclaimed, ii. 108. Confirmed by Pope Alexander III. as a general law of the Church, 108 note

Truth, injurious effect of the doctrine of exclusive salvation on the sense of, i. 393. 'Pious frauds,' 393 and note, 394. Total destruction of the sense of truth in the middle ages resulting from the influence of theology, 394. Credulity proclaimed a virtue by the classes most addicted to falsehood 395. Revival of the sense of truth due to the secular philosophers of the seventeenth century, 399

Turgot on money-lending, quoted, ii. 248 note. His remarks on the scholastic writings on usury, ii. 253 note, 260

Tuscany, abolition of torture in, i. 334

Tyrannicide in immature civilisations, ii. 150, 156. Case of Henry III., 150, 151. Chief arguments on either side, 151-153. Its importance in the history of liberal opinions, 158. Justified by Jean Petit, 158. But denounced by Gerson and the Council of Constance, 159, Grévin's play of 'The Death of Cæsar,' 159. Advocated by Toletus, Sa, Molina, Ayala, and Kellerus, 159 160. The murder of Henry III. justified by the League and by Pope Sixtus V., 161. Political assassination approved by Protestants, 161

Ultramontaine party in the Church of Rome, review of the. ii. 146

Universe, the morphological theory of the, i. 294. Influence of this theory on history, 295

Usher, Archbishop, heads a protest against Catholic relief, ii. 48. His sentiments on passive obedience, 176 note

Usury, a ground of collision between industry and the Church, ii. 242. Principles which regulate the price of money, 242 and note. Ignorance of the ancients of the principles regulating interest, 244. Money-lending among the Greeks and Gauls, 244. Interest condemned by the early and mediæval Church, 245. Usury in England in the middle ages, 246 note. Twelve per cent. legalised by Constantine, 246 note. Decrees of the Councils of Nice and Illiberis on the subject, 247 note. Definitions of usury employed by the writers on Canon Law, 247 note. Change the word usury has undergone during the last three centuries, 247. Decision of the Sorbonne. 248 note. The 'Monti di Pietâ' of Italy, 249. Arguments upon which the doctrines of the theologians against usury were based, 250. Passages of Scripture cited against usury, 252. Effect of the prohibition of usury in Catholic countries on the habits of the people, 253 note. Usurers almost always Jews, 254. French law of the eighth century, 253 note. Law of Justinian, 253 note. Christian money-lenders at the close of the eleventh century, 254. Usury made popular by the rise of the Italian Republics, 254. Decree of the Third Council of Lateran. 254. And of the Council of Vienne, 255 note. The old superstition respecting usury shaken by the Reformation, 255, 256. Views of Calvin, 256. Money-lending formally permitted by Henry VIII. in England, 256. Books of Saumaise in defence of interest, 256. Change in the meaning of the word usury in the sixteenth century, 257. Casuistry of the Jesuits, 257. Gradual disappearance of the laws upon usury based upon theological grounds, 259. Discussion of the economical question by Locke, Smith, Hume, Turgot, and Bentham, 259 et seq. Importance of this controversy in producing an antagonism between industry and theology, 260, 261. Controversy in the middle ages as to the propriety of permitting Jews to practise usury, 266 note

Utilitarianism, the philosophical expression of industrialism, ii. 352. Evils resulting from this philosophy, 353

Valens, the Emperor, his persecution of pagan magic in the East, i. 57

Valentinian, the Emperor, renews the persecutlon against pagan magic, i. 57

Valery, witches burnt at, i. 31

Vanini, his view of the influence of the stars over the fortunes of Christianity, i. 284 note

Vavassor, 'De Formâ Christi,' i. 245 note

Venice, licentiousness of, i. 255. Influence of its sensuality upon art, 255. The dyers of, in the middle ages, 255 note. Period of the introduction of the inquisition into

Venice, ii. 113. Commerce of the Venetians, 282

Ventriloquism, attributed to supernatural agency, i. 119

Venus, the Greek statues of a type of sensual beauty, i. 243. The character of sensuality said to have been given by Praxiteles to, 257 note

Verona, execution of heretics in, ii. 117 note

Vesta, supposed by the Cabalists to have been the wife of Noah, i. 67 note

Vice, influence of, on historic Development, ii. 70

Vienne, Council of, its endeavours to arrest the progress of usury, n. 254

Vincent Ferrier, St., preaches against the Jews, ii. 267. Account of him, 268 note

Vincentius, his opinions on infant baptism, i. 361

'Vindiciæ contra Tyrannos,' the, ii. 188, 189

Virgilius, St., asserts his belief in the existence of the Antipodes, i. 280

Virgin, causes of the growing worship of the, i. 220. Strengthened by Gnosticism, 222, 223. Conceptions culled from the different beliefs of paganism more or less connected with the ideal of this worship, 223. Mariolatry strengthened by dogmatic definitions, 224. Instances in the middle ages of a desire to give a palpable form to the mystery of the incarnation, 224 note. The worship of the Virgin strengthened by painting, by celibacy, and by the crusades, 225. No authentic portrait of her in the time of St. Augustine, 224 note. Generally represented in the early church with the Infant Child, 224 note. The first notice of the resemblance of Christ to her, 224 note. Appearance of the doctrine of the immaculate conception, 225. Salutary influence exercised by the mediæval conception of the Virgin, 226. The Virgin regarded as an omnipresent deity, 226. The Psalms adapted by St. Bonaventura to her worship, 227

Virtue, pursuit of, for its own sake, i. 307. The substitution of the sense of right for the fear of punishment as the main motive of virtue, 315 et seq. The sense of appealed most strongly to by the philosophers of ancient Greece and Rome, 356

Vives, Luis, his protest against torture in Spain, i. 334 note. His opinions denounced by Bishop Simancas, 334 note. Of spontaneous generation, 344 note

Voltaire, on the decadence in the belief in witchcraft, 117 and note. Effect of his ridicule, 118. His denunciation of torture, 333 note. Impulse given by him to the amelioration of the penal code, 350. His influence on the spirit of toleration in France, ii. 71, 72. His approval of the partition of Poland, 213 note. His ode to the memory of Le Couvreur the actress, 305. His removal of the stigma that rested upon actors, 309. His efforts in favour of peace, 337

Wagstaffe, an Oxford scholar, his opposition to the belief in the existence of witchcraft, i. 137. Notice of him from Wood, 137 note 'Waking' witches, i. 145

War, changes in the art of, favourable to liberty, ii. 205. Change in the relative position of the cavalry and infantry, 205. The English archers, 205. Rise of the Flemish infantry, 206. The Italian condottieri, 206. The invention of gunpowder and of the bayonet, 206, 207. Three heads under which the causes of the wars during the last 1,000 years may be classed, 219. Close of religious wars, 110

Warburton, Bishop, helps to usher in a new phase in the history of miracles, i. 173. His notion of the origin of Gothic architecture, 264 note. His argument in favour of the divine origin of Judaism, 318 note

Water, baptismal, fetish notions in the early Church respecting the, i. 205. Notion of the sanctity of, i. 206 note. Why witches were plunged into, 206 note. Regarded by Thales as the origin of all things, 206 note. Ovid on the expiatory power of, 206 note

Wealth, position assigned by industrialism to, ii. 346

Webster on witchcraft, i. 136. His systematic application of a rationalistic interpretation to the magical miracles in the Bible, 136

Wenham, Jane, her trial for witchcraft, i. 139

Wesley, John, on witches, i. 34. His summary of the history of the movement against the belief in witchcraft, 140

Westphalia, peace of, regarded as the close of religious wars, ii. 110

Whiston, contends that hell is placed in the tail of a comet, i. 144 note

White, Thomas, answered Glanvil's 'Vanity of Dogmatisms' &c., i. 130 note

Wier, John, 'De Præstigiis Dæmonum,' i. 105. Bodin's remarks on it, 109

William of Ockham, favourable to liberty 144 note

Windham, Mr., his defence of bull-baiting, i. 307 note

Windmills, invention of, ii. 332. The earliest notice of 332 note

Witchcraft: causes of the belief in witchcraft or magic, i. 37. Considerations serving to explain the history of witchcraft and its significance as an index of the course of civilisation, 40. Leading phases through which the belief has passed, 40. Belief of savages in witchcraft, 40. Marriage with devils an ordinary accusation in charges for witchcraft, 48. Existence of the intellectual basis of witchcraft in the dark ages, 63, 65. Numbers of women put to death in the sixth century, 65. Progress of the panic created by the belief in witchcraft, 70. The last law in Europe on the subject, 70 note. Causes which produced a bias towards witchcraft, 70. The climax of the trials for witchcraft in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 78. Influence of the Reformation in stimulating witchcraft, 79. Luther and Erasmus firm believers in the crime, 84 note. The coexistence of witchcraft with a conflict of opinions among the educated, 84. Formation of the theology of witchcraft, 86. Numbers and ability of the early works on the subject, 88. Leading causes upon which the belief in witchcraft depended, 90 et seq. Accounts of the influence of witchcraft upon the passions, 98. Views of Wier on witches and witchcraft, 105. And of Bodin, 107. Montaine's opinions on witchcraft, 111, 114. Rapid and silent decadence in the belief in witchcraft, 116. Opinions and influence of La Bruyère, Bayle, Descartes, Malebranche, and Voltaire, 116. Colbert's suppression of executions for witchcraft, 118. The belief in witchcraft much less prominent in England than on the Continent, 119, 120. The first English law on the subject, 119. Repealed in the reign of Mary, but renewed on the accession of Elizabeth, 121. Number of executions in England for witchcraft, 120 note. Methods employed by the witch-finders to compel confession, 122. Reginald Scott's protest against the persecution, 122. King James the First's zeal against witchcraft, 123. Sir Thomas Browne's belief in its existence, 124. Shakspeare and Bacon on witchcraft, 124. Selden's peculiar views, 125. Matthew Hopkins and the executions in Suffolk, 125, 126. History of the decline of the belief in England, 127. Causes of the decline, 128. Attempts to revive the belief by accounts of witch trials in America, 137. The last judicial executions in England, 139. Repeal of the laws against witchcraft, 140. John Wesley's protest against the disbelief in witchcraft, 140. Moderation of the English Church on the matter as compared with Puritanism, 140. Extreme atrocity of the witch persecution in Scotland, and its causes, 143. Decline of the belief in witchcraft in Scotland, 151. The last execution of a witch in that country, 151. Review of the rise, progress, and decline of the belief, 152, 153

Witch-finders in England during the Commonwealth, i. 28 note

Witches. See Witchcraft

Wolves, veneration of the ancient Irish for, i. 95 note

Women, diatribes of ancient authors on, i. 98, 99. Superstitious notion of, respecting eating the lily, 225. Influence of the mediæval conception of the Virgin in elevating women to their rightful position, 226

Würtzburg, great number of witches put to death at, i. 29

Wycliffe, his liberal opinions, ii. 168. His opposition to slavery, 168

Xenodochion, the, of the early Christians, ii. 233

York Minster, Smollett's remarks on, i. 264

Zachary, Pope, heads the attack on the views of St. Virgilius, i. 280

Zerta, synod of, pronounces in favour of the doctrine of the damnation of the heathen, i. 377 note

Zoroaster, otherwise Japhet, supposed by the Cabalists to have been a son of Noah and Vesta, i. 67 note

Zosimus, his remarks on Constantine's severity against the Aruspices, i. 52 note

Zuinglius, his career compared with that of Socinus, i. 372. Part taken by him in the Eucharistic controversy, 372. Rejects original sin, 373. His view attacked by Bossuet, 373 note. His repudiation of exclusive salvation, 382. His aversion to persecution, ii. 51. His liberal political principles, 169

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