RATIONALISM IN EUROPE.
Linked Index, A-J.
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Abelard, standard of impartial philosophy planted by, i. 71

Aberdeen, injunction of the synod of, respecting witches, i. 145

Abgarus, king of Edessa, portrait and letter of Christ to, i. 229

Abimelech, Bossuet on the name, ii. 181 note

Abyssians, their superstitions respecting potters and blacksmiths, i. 98 note

Acontius (Acanacio), his life and writings, ii. 57 note

Actors, stigma attached to them in ancient times, ii. 288 290, 306. Attempts of Nero to relieve them, 288 note. The actor Aliturus and the actress Eucharis, 288 note. St. Genetus, the patron saint of actors, 290 note. Actors, how regarded by the Church, 304. The sacraments denied to them, 306, 307. The stigma upon actors removed in a great degree by Voltaire, 309. Removal of their disqualifications by the French Revolution, ii. 309

Adam, the sin of, according to the Cabalists, i. 67 note

Adonis, Greek statues of, i. 243

Adrian VI., Pope, his bull against witchcraft, i. 32

Æons, origin of the central doctrine of the, of the Gnostics, i. 46 note

Aërolites, probably worshipped in ancient Greece, i. 243

Agobard, St., archbishop of Lyons, opposes the popular belief in sorcery, i. 65, 66. His efforts in dispelling superstition, 231. His work denouncing the idolatry of image worship, 232

Agricultural interests, their conflict with manufacturing interests, ii. 323. Mediæval preference for agriculture, 324. The superior productivity of agriculture asserted by Adam Smith, but refuted by Ricardo, 330, 331

Agrippa, Cornelius, regarded as a sorcerer, i. 109. Notice of his career, 110

Akroliqoi, the ancient Greek wooden statues with marble heads so called, i. 242 note

Albigenses, massacre of the, in the twelfth century, i. 71. Success of persecution shown in the case of the, ii. 14. Period of the massacre, 36. The crime instigated by a pope, 45

Alcazar of Seville, architectural beauties of the, i. 236

Alexander II., Pope, his liberality to the Jews, ii. 264

Alexander III., Pope, confirms the 'Truce of God' as a general law of the Church, ii. 108 note

Alexander IV., Pope, his bull confiscating the goods of heretics, ii. 44 note

Alexander VI., Pope, his liberality to the Jews, ii. 264 note

Alexander VII., Pope, on money-lending, ii. 248 note

Alexandria, the introduction of pictures forbidden by some Christians of, into their churches, i. 233

Alexandrian or Neo-Platonic school, its theories, i. 46. Its influence over early Christianity, 46 note

Alhambra, character of the ornamentation of the, i. 236 note

Aliturns, the Jewish actor, ii. 288 note

Allegiance, Oath of, despotic maxims embodied in the, ii. 177. Abolition of this clause, 177 note

Ambassadors, probable origin of resident, ii. 281

Ambrose, St., miracle related of, i. 95. His protest against the execution of some heretics, ii. 33

America, cases of witchcraft in, in the seventeenth century, i. 137. Protestant persecutions of the Catholics and Quakers in, ii. 49. Slavery in, compared with that of the Greeks and Romans, 225

Amsterdam, one great cause of its prosperity, ii. 273

Amulets, value attributed by fetishism to, i. 206

Amulo, archbishop of Lyons, his view of Gotteschalk's opinions as to double predestination, i. 385 note

Amusements, public, influence of wealth and luxury upon the character of; ii. 285

Anabaptists, persecution of, in England, under Queen Elizabeth, ii. 47. And in Switzerland, 49. Position assigned to them by Bossuet, 60. Their notion of the sleep of the soul between death and judgment, 79 note. Calvin's book against it, 79 note

Anæsthesia, a symptom of some of the forms of madness, i. 124

Ancyra, Council of, condemns the belief in lycanthropy, i. 96

Angel, St Augustine on the meaning of the word, i. 47 note. Pagan genii identified with guardian angels, 215. One assigned by the Talmud to every star and every element, 289. This notion represented in old Christian painting and sculpture, 289 note. Gradual decline of this belief, 289. Angels universally believed to have cohabited with the daughters of the antediluvians, 343

Angelico, Fra, his character and that of his works, i. 246

Anglicanism, the old Puritan's description of, ii. 47 note. Servility and enmity of, to public liberty, 174. Lord Macaulay on the subject quoted, 174 note. 'Homilies on Wilful Rebellion' quoted, 174. Every reaction supported by it, 177. Exceptional position of Hooker, 178. Predisposition of Anglicanism towards despotism, 180. Anglican notions on allegiance to the sovereign de facto, 183 note. Its treatment of the theatre, 311

Anglo-Saxons, their measures for alleviating the condition of slaves, ii. 231

Animals, belief in the connection between evil spirits and, i. 95. Use made of animals in Christian symbolism, 95 note. Ascription of intelligence to animals in the middle ages, 96 note. Mystic animals among the Celts, 96 note. Innkeepers who were said to have turned their guests into animals, 97 note. The higher forms of animal beauty appreciated by the Greek sculptors, 239 note. Descartes' doctrine of animals, i. 346 note. Stahl founds the psychology of animals, 346 note

Antony, St., miracles related of, i. 156, 157

Anthropomorphism, the second stage of religious belief, i. 207. The government of the universe then ascribed by men to beings like themselves, 207. But unable to concentrate their attention on the Invisible, they fall into idolatry, 208. Progress of anthropomorphism, 217. Conclusion of the anthropomorphic impulse shown by St Peter's at Rome, 267

Antiphons, legendary origin of, ii. 300

Antipodes, controversy in the early Church as to the existence of the, i. 275. Correct doctrine stumbled upon by the Manichæans, 275. Existence of the Antipodes dereed by the Fathers, 275, 276. And by Cosmas in his 'Topographia Christiana,' 276. Their existence asserted by St. Virgilius, 280

Apelles, painted Lais, i. 254

Apocalyptic subjects in Christian art, i. 249

Apollo, in Greek statues, the type of male beauty, i. 243

Apparitious, the belief in, one of the cornerstones of the psychology of the Fathers, i. 341. Predisposition of the Greeks to see ghosts, 341 note. Apparitions seen by the ancients, 342

Apples, the supposed especial power of the devil over, i. 30 note

Aquatic deity, pagan representation of an, adopted by Christian art, i. 214

Aquinas, St. Thomas, his belief in the power of the devil, i. 88. On the connection between spirits and animals, 97 note. On infant baptism, 361 note. His notion of the locality of hell, 346 note. His remarks in favour of persecution, ii. 12. His assertion of the right to rebel against unjust sovereigns, 144. His views respecting usury, 252. His remarks on the Jews, 265. His 'Histriones' quoted, 292 and note

Arabs, influence of their works on the intellectual energies of Christendom, ii. 284

Arcadius, the emperor, suppresses the works of Eunomius, ii. 118

Archers, English, their skill, ii. 205

Architecture, the only form of art open to the Mahometans, i. 236. The Alhambra and Alcazar of Seville, 236. The works of Greek architects at Ravenna, Venice, &c., 246. Introduction of the form of the cross in the ground plan of churches, 250 note. Transition which took place in architecture, 262. Period of the origin of Gothic architecture, 262. Fitness of Gothic as Christian architecture, 263. Hutchinson on the causes of the ancient preference of Gothic to Roman architecture, 264 note. Style altered by Brunelleschi, 265. Superiority of Gothic architecture for distances, and its influence on the stage, ii. 302

Arians, ascendency of the, in the East, in the reign of Valens, i. 57. Their persecutions, ii. 22. Intolerance of the Spanish Arians, 22 note. Persecuted by Constantine, 23. Persecutions of, under Elizabeth, ii. 51

Aristocratical system, its influence in consolidating the doctrine of hereditary merit, i. 358

Aristotle, his position in the Church in the middle ages owing to the early heretics, i. 380 note. His views respecting the exercise of mechanical arts, ii. 224. And respecting slavery, 225. On the sterility of money, 251

Arras, trials at, in 1459, i. 28 note

Art, the most faithful expression of religious realisation, during the continuance of idolatry, i. 209. Influence of the national religions on the art of the ancients. 209. The art of the Catacombs, and its freedom from idolatry, 211. Effect of Pagan traditions upon Christian art, 210. Its freedom from terrorism in early times, 212. Its great love of symbolism, 213. Symbol of the peacock 213. And of Orpheus, 214. Examples of the introduction of pagan gods into Christian art, 214 note. Masks of the sun and moon as emblems of the resurrection, 214. The Pagan genii of the seasons as guardian angels, 215. The symbol of the fish (ix[th]u's), 215. And of the stag, 215. Other subjects taken from Old Testament symbols, 216. Causes of the growing tendency to represent directly the object of worship, 216. Portraits of God the Father, 217. Materialisation of every spiritual conception from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, 217, Influence of Gnosticism over Christian art, 217. Progress of the representation of the Creator in art, 219. Influence of the Apocryphal Gospels, 222. Probable Gnostic origin of the conventional cast of features ascribed to Christ, 222. Influence of painting and sculpture in strengthening Mariolatry, 225. Architecture the only form of art open to the Mahometans, 236. Character of Christian art in the middle ages, 237. Gold and silver carving, and ivory diptychs, 237 note. Illumination of manuscripts, 237. Influence of mediæval modes of thought upon art, 238 note. Period in which the ascetic ideal of ugliness was most supreme, 241 note. The Abbé Pascal on mediæval art, 241 note. The work of Bishop Durandus, 241 note. Greek idolatry fading into art, 241. Its four stages, 242. A corresponding transition in Christendom, 244. Greek influence on Christian art, 244. In Italy, 244 note. Effects on art of the tradition of the personal deformity of Christ, 245. The Byzantine style broken by a study of ancient Greek sculpture, 246. Christian school of Giotto and Fra Angelico, 246. A general efflorescence of the beautiful produced by the revival of learning in Europe, 247. Apocalyptic subjects, 249. Progress of terrorism in art, 250. Religious paintings regarded simply as studies of the beautiful, 252. Causes of this secularisation of art, 252. Influence upon art of sensuality, 254. And of oriental robes, 255 note. Influence of the discovery of many great works of pagan sculpture, 256. History of Greek art after the rise of Christianity, 257. The types of Christian replaced by those of Pagan art, 259. Reaction in favour of spiritualism led by Savonarola, 260. Rapidity of the secularisation of art after the death of Savonarola, 261. Never afterwards assumed a commanding influence over the minds of men, 262. Transition which took place in architecture, 262. Intellectual importance of the history of art, 267

Ascetism. See Monasticism

Asses, feast of, 295. Origin of the, 296 note

Astrologers, called Mathematici, i. 65 note

Astrology, revival of the passion for, in the middle ages, i. 70. M. Comte's remarks on, as a science, 284. Peter of Apono's attempt to construct a system of religions by the aid of, 284 note. Cardan and Vanini's horoscope of Christ 284 note. Bodin on the influence of the stars over the development of societies, 284

Astronomony displaces the ancient notion of man's position in the universe, i. 283. Beauty of the suggestion of Dr. Chalmers respecting insignificance of the earth, 285 note. Views of the ancient astronomers as to the motion of the celestial bodies, 285 note. Cause of the growth of the science of astronomy, 288. Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Tycho Brahe, 288. Descartes' theory of vortices, 289. Comets, 290. Halley's prediction of their revolution, 291. Laplace on the argument of design derived from the motions of the planetary bodies, 297 note

Atheism, Glanvil's character of, in his time, i. 134 note. Loose senses in which the word atheism has been used, 134 note

Atmospheric disturbances attributed to the power of the devil, and of witches, i. 91

Augury, how punished by the Emperor Constantius, i. 53

Augustine, St., on the meaning of the word angel, i. 47 note. Regarded lycanthropy as a fable, 96, 97 note. On the miracles worked by the relics of St. Stephen, 178 note. His defence of the Genesis against the Maniehæans, 273. His opinion of the incorporeity of the soul, 342 note. His remarks on the existence of mice, 345 note. His view of infant baptism, 362. His views as to the condemnation of all external to the Church, 376. The theory of predestination substantially held by St. Augustine, i. 383. The theology of persecution systematised by him, ii. 29. Notice of his character and influence, 29, 30. His aversion to the effusion of blood, 31. Condemns religious liberty, 32 note. Authority, examination of the basis or principle of, on which all political structures rest, ii. 136

Averroes, influence of, over the whole intellect of Europe, i. 71. Renan's essay on, 71 note. Orgagna's picture of, at Pisa, 71 note. Impulse given to psychology by the school of, 343

Avitus, St., his verse on infant baptism quoted, i. 363 note

Ayala, Balthazar, his defence of tyrannicide under some circumstances, ii. 160


Bacchus, in Greek statues, a type of disgraceful effeminacy, i. 243

Bacon, Lord, his view of witchcraft, i. 124. Influence of his philosophy on its decline 128. On the cause of the paralysis of the human faculties in the middle ages, 283. Enlightenment of his age, 292 note. His inability to grasp the discoveries of the astronomers of his time, 292 note. Causes of his influence, 400, 401. Carpings of the Tractarian party at the inductive philosophy of Bacon, 403 note

Bacon, Roger, his persecution, i. 282. Influence of Arabian learning over him, ii. 284

Bagpipes, praised by Julian in one of his epigrams, i. 263 note

Ballot, the, advocated by Harrington in the seventeenth century, ii. 145 note

Baltimore, Lord, upholds religious liberty, ii. 59

Bamberg, great number of witches burnt at, i. 29

Baptism, fetish notions in the early Church respecting the water of, i. 204. Unanimity of the Fathers concerning the non-salvability of unbaptised infants, 360. Opinion as to a special place assigned to unbaptised infants, 361. The 'baptism of blood,' and the 'baptism of perfect love,' 360 note. Opinions of Pelagius, St. Augustine, Origen, and St Fulgentius, 362. Superstitious rites devised as substitutes for regular baptism, 364 note. Doctrine of the Church of Rome as enunciated by the Council of Trent, 366. Conflicting tendencies on the subject produced by the Reformation, 365. Effects of the Anabaptist movement, 365. Cases of baptism by sand and wine, 366 note. Doctrines of the Lutherans and Calvinists, 367. The doctrine of original sin rejected by Socinus, 372. By Zuinglius, 373. And by Chillingworth and Jeremy Taylor, 374 note

Barbarians, conversion of the, causes idolatry to become general, i. 230

Barberini, Cardinal, his musical parties, ii. 308 note

Barclay, William, first denied the power of the Pope over the temporal possessions of princes, ii. 164 note. On lawful resistance to tyranny, 181

Baroni, Leonora, her singing, ii. 308 note. Milton's Latin poems addressed to her, 308 note

Bartholomew, St., success of persecution shown in the case of the massacre of, ii. 14. Heaven thanked by a Pope for the massacre of, 45

Bartholomeo, Fra, influence of Savonarola over him, i. 261

Basil, St., devotion of the monks of, to painting, ii 232

Baxter, Richard, his defence of the persecution of witches, i. 33, 126. His account of the death of Lewes, 126 note. His vain endeavours to revive the behef in witchcraft by accounts of witch trials in America, 138. His work answered by Hutchinson, 139. His view of religious liberty, ii. 79

Bayle, his view of witchcraft, i. 116. His attempt to overcome the popular superstitions respecting comets, 291. His works, and those which best show his genius, 291 note. His remarks on the tendency of theologians to condemn error more severely than immorality, 315 note. His denunciation of torture, 333 note. The character of Bayle regarded as the sceptical scholar, ii. 64. His influence on religious liberty in France, 64. His 'Contrains-les d'entrer,' 64. Arguments by which his principles were developed, 67, 68. His advocacy of the doctrine of passive obedience, 212. The 'Avis aux Refugiez' ascribed to him, 212 note

Bayonet, importance of the invention of the, to democracy, ii. 207

Bear-baiting, not formerly regarded as inhuman, i. 307, 308

Bears, dancing, their connection with the devil, i. 96 note

Beaumarchais, his charity, ii. 234 note

Beauty, Greek worship of every order of, i. 239. Beauty of some of the higher forms of animal life, displayed in Greek sculpture, 239 note. Departure of mediæval art from the beautiful, 241. A general efflorescence of the beautiful the result of the revival of learning in Europe 247. Influence of voluptuous beauty upon art, 256 note. The feeling of reverence gradually encroached upon and absorbed by that of beauty, 268

Beccaria, his opposition to torture in Italy, i. 334

Becket, St. Thomas à, hymn on the Virgin ascribed to quoted, i. 224 note

Bedell, Bishop, respect with which he was treated by the rebel Catholics, ii. 16. His life, by Alexander Clogy, 16 note

Beelzebub, regarded as the god of flies, i. 96 note

Begards, sect of the, i. 344

Belgium, monkish origin of many of the towns of, ii. 232. First mercantile establishments in, 281

Belief, religious, fetishism probably the first stage of, i. 204. Anthropomorphism the next stage, 207

Bellarmine, Cardinal, one of his arguments in favour of persecution, ii. 28 note. His support of the Pope's right to depose sovereigns, 147. His work burnt in Paris, 147

Bells, church, supposed invention of, by Paulinus, i. 262

Benedict XIV., Pope, his definition of usury, ii. 247 note. His decree against it, 257

Benedictines, their services in making labour honourable, ii. 232

Bentham, Jeremy, his part in the movement for the mitigation of the severity of the penal code, i. 351. On usury, ii. 251 note. Gives the death blow to the usury laws, 260

Berkeley, Bishop, helps by his writings the cause of toleration, ii. 77. His proposal to admit Catholics into a Protestant University, 124 note. His sentiments on passive obedience, 176 note

Bernard, St., his rejection of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, i. 225 note

Beronice, the name given by early Christian tradition to the woman healed of an issue of blood, i. 221 note. This woman one of the principal types among the Gnostics, 221 note

Beza, on predestination, i. 387. Advocates the lawfulness of persecution, ii. 50. His answer to Castellio, 56

Bianchi, his work 'On Ecclesiastical Power,' ii. 141 note

Bibbiena, Cardinal, his play of the 'Calandra,' ii. 299. Portraits of by Raphael, 299 note

Biblical interpretation and criticism. See Scriptural Interpretation

Bilson, Bishop, his Apology for the policy of Queen Elizabeth towards the Catholics, ii. 48 note. Maintains the sinfulness of toleration, 48 note

Binsfeldius, his opposition to the belief in lycanthropy, i. 98 note

Bishops, election of, in the early Church, ii. 140

Black death, a cause of the tendency towards luxury, ii. 275

Blacksmiths, Abyssinian superstition respecting, i. 98 note

Blackwood, on lawful resistance to tyranny; ii. 180

Blanchot, Peter, his farce of 'Patelin,' ii. 297, 298 note

Bodin, John, his defence of the belief in witchcraft, i. 88. Testimonies to his merits as an historian, 107 note. His 'Demonomanie des Sorciers,' 108. His indignation at Wier's sceptical work, 109, His reverence for the Old Testament, 151 note. His notion of the influence of the stars over the development of societies, 283 note. His study of the Roman law, ii. 194. His view of the regal power, 194

Body, the human, contrast between the pagan and Christian estimate of, i. 240

Bœotians, their dislike of commerce, ii. 224

Boguet, president of the tribunal of St. Claude, his executions for lycanthropy, i. 117

Bolingbroke, Lord, causes of the oblivion into which his works have passed, i. 190. Inimical to liberty, ii. 206

Bollandist, collection of Lives of the Saints, i. 158 note

Bonaventura, St., his Psalter, in use at Rome, i. 227 note

Boniface, St., his attack on St. Virgilius, i. 290

Boots with pointed toes supposed to have been offensive to God, i. 78

Bossuet, attacks Zuinglius' notion of original sin, i. 373 note. Asserts the doctrine of salvation only in the Church, 382. Position assigned by him to Socinians and Anabaptists, ii. 60

Botticelli, the painter, influenced by Saronarola, i. 261

Bourdeaux, De Lancre's suggestion as to the cause of witchcraft about, i. 30 note

Brancas, Madame de, her performance of the character of Geometry, ii. 298 note

Brephotrophia, or asylums for children, in the time of Justinian, ii. 233

Breccia, Inquisition riots in, ii. 117

Bridles, witches', or iron collars used for extorting confession, i. 146 note

Broedersen, his work on usury, ii. 257

Browne, Sir Thomas, his belief in the existence of witchcraft, i. 124 note, 129

Bruges, luxury of, in the fourteenth century, ii. 275

Brunelleschi, his influence on Italian architecture, i. 265

Bruno, his philosophical speculations, i. 401. Burnt alive, 401

Bruyère, La, his opinions and influence on the subject of witchcraft, i. 116

Buchanan, George, his Protestant liberalism, ii. 171. His praise of the tyrannicides of antiquity, 171, 172. Influence of his tract 'De Jure Regni apud Scotos,' 172

Buckle, on the disbelief in witchcraft in England, i. 138. On the Scotch Reformation, ii. 170

Bull-bating, not formerly regarded as inhuman, i. 307. Its silent extinction amongst the upper classes, 309. Defended by Canning and Windham, 307 note. The unsuccessful warfare waged by the Popes against Spanish bull-fights, 308 note. Opposition of the Jesuit Mariana, 308 note. The great bull-fight of 1333 at Rome, 308 note

Bullinger, his approval of the murder of Servetus, ii. 52

Burghers, privileges of, in the middle ages, ii. 239 note

Burgos, miracle of the crucifix at, i. 157

Burnet, Bishop, his liberalism, ii. 180 note

Burt, Captain, on old women turning themselves into cats, i. 148, note. His account of the belief in witchcraft in Scotland in his time, 151

Butler, on eternal punishments, i. 338


Cabala, the Hebrew, i. 67 note

Cabalis, views of the, respecting demons, i. 49 note. Doctrines and beliefs of the, 66. The mystic union of Cabalistic philosophers and sylphs, 67

Cagliostro, the prophecies of, attributed to supernatural agency, i. 119

Cainits, their reverence for the opponents of the Jewish religion, i. 220 note

Calahorra, witches put to death at, i. 37 note

Calvin, John, his notions on witchcraft, i. 33 note. His view of infant baptism, 367 note. His part in the Eucharistic controversy, 373. His view of the doctrine of salvation only for those in the Church, 381. Advocates the lawfulness of persecution, ii. 50. Applauded for burning Servetus, 52. His answer to Castellio's denunciation of predestinarianism, 55. His book against the Anabaptists' notion of the sleep of the soul between death and judgment, 79 note. His inclmation to the republican theory of government, 169. His views of money-lending, 256. His severity against the theatre, 310 note

Canning, George, his defence of bull-baiting, i. 307 note

Capel, Lord, his dying words on passive obedience, ii. 181 note

Capital, the increase of, one of the circumstances that prepared the democracy of the eighteenth century, ii. 201. Importance to the poor of converting wealth into capital, 343 note

Capital punishment, opposition of Bishop Berkeley to, i. 350. Beccaria advocated its abolition, 350

Cardan, his horoscope of Christ, i. 284 note

Carmagnola and the Italian condottieri, ii. 206

Carmelites, their history, ii. 349 note

Carthage, Council of, pronounces the damnation of the heathen, i. 377. Third and Fourth Councils of, condemn usury, ii. 247 note

Carving on gold and silver, how preserved in the middle ages, i. 237 note. Carved ivory diptychs, 237 note

Casaubon Meric, his defence of the belief in the existence of witchcraft, i. 136

Cassino, Monte, school of Greek mosaic artists established at, i. 237

Castanaga, a Spanish monk, questions the justice of executions for witchcraft, i. 37 note

Castillio, his life and writings, ii. 53. His repudiation of predestinarianism, 53. Denounces the murder of Servetus, 54. Answered by Calvin and Beza, 55. Epithets heaped upon him by Calvin, 55 note His end, 56

Catacombs, tombs of the exorcists in the i. 50 note. The art of the catacombs altogether removed from idolatry, 211. Only one or two representations of martyrdoms, 211. Systematic exclusion of all images of sorrow, suffering, and vengeance, 212. Great love of symbolism evinced by the art of the catacombs, 213

Cathari, a sect of Gnostics, their efforts to subdue the propensities of the body, i. 240

Catholicism, Roman, traces of the compromise between Christianity and Paganism in, i. 60. Identification of startling natural phenomena by the priests with acts of rebellion against themselves, 63. The continuance of miraculous power still maintained by the Church of Rome, 155. But the sense of the miraculous on the decline among the great body of educated Catholics, 159, 162. Rationalistic tendencies in Roman Catholic countries, 184. Reflections on St. Peter's at Rome as a memorial of the decay of Catholicism, 265. Torture employed by Catholics during the reign of Mary 333 note. Doctrine of the Church of Rome respecting infant baptism as enunciated by the Council of Trent, 366. Early Catholicism perfectly in accordance with the intellectual wants of Europe, ii. 36. Period when it became the principle of retrogression, 38. And when coercion was matured, 38. Establishment of the Inquisition, massacre of the Albigenses, and injunction of the Fourth Council of the Lateran, 38. Atrocity of the persecution perpetrated by Catholicism, 40. A greater amount of unmerited suffering inflicted by the Church of Rome than by any other religion that has ever existed, 46. Persecution of Catholics under Elizabeth, 47. Catholic and Protestant persecutions compared, 57. Growth of religious liberty in France always opposed by the Church, 74. Attempts of Lamennais to associate Catholicity with the movement of modern civilisation, 74. Catholicism proscribed by the English Commonwealth, 78. Milton's reasons for excluding Catholics from toleration, 82. Period of the undisputed ascendency of Catholicism in Europe, 107. Catholic emancipation, 123. Endowment of the college of Maynooth, 123. Proposal of Bishop Berkeley to admit Catholics into a Protestant university, 123 note. Review of the Ultramontane party, 146. The works of Bellarmine and Suarez burnt at Paris, 147. Teaching of French Catholicism as to the independence of the civil power, 166. In its earlier stage the Catholic Church the representative of progress, 208. Natural incapacity of Catholicism to guide the democratic movement in the eighteenth century, 211. Her implacable enmity to toleration, 212. Effect of the prohibition of usury in Catholic countries, 253 note

Cato, his remark on celibacy, i. 99

Cats, old women turning themselves into, i. 148 note

Causes, ultimate, failure of the mind of man in discovering, i. 297.

Cavalry: change in the relative position of cavalry and infantry in war, ii. 205

Cecchino, the harlequin, notice of, ii. 297 note

Celibacy regarded as the highest form of virtue, i. 98. The old writers respecting women, 99. Influence of the celibacy of the monks in strengthening Mariolatry, 224

Cellini, Benvenuto, his combination of immorality and piety, i. 391

Celso, Minos, his work attributed to Bellius, ii. 57 note

Celts, their ascription of intelligence to animals, i. 96 note

Censorship, abrogation of the, in England, ii. 87. A literary censorship directed against heretical writings after the abolition of punishment for heresy, 118. Diocletian, Julian, Constantine, and Arcadius, 118. Beginning of licenses, 119. Convocation and the Star Chamber, 119

Cerebration, unconscious, instances of, ii. 95, 96 note

Ceres, in Greek statues, a type of summer and of maternal love, i. 243

Chalmers, Dr, his suggestion respecting the earth, i. 287 note

Chance, games of, why prohibited, i. 287. Old opinions on the subject of lots, 287 note. Gataker's work on the natural laws of lot, 287 note

Charity of the early Christians, ii. 233. Long period that elapsed before it was appreciated, 235

Charlemagne, his stringent laws against sorcerers, i. 65. His contemptuous disregard of the decrees of the Second Council of Nice, 230

Charles V., Emperor, number of Dutch heretics put to death during his reign, ii. 41. Magnificent position of Spain under his government, 311. His employment of gold in his wars, 315. His dishonest tampering with the coinage, 316 note

Charles IX., of France, alleged cause of his early death, i. 110

Charms, reverence of, fetishism, i. 207

Charron, his famous treatise on 'Wisdom,' i. 115, 333 note. His denunciation of torture in France, 333. His advocacy of the doctrine of passive obedience, ii. 212

Chemistry, its separation from alchemy, i. 292

Child, Sir Josiah, his defence of the mercantile system, ii. 327 note

Chillingworth, William, causes of his joining the Church of Rome, i. 180. Rejects original sin, 374 note. Helps by his writings the cause of toleration, ii. 77, 78

Chocolate, importation of, into Europe, ii. 321

Christ, as represented in Christian art before and after the twelfth century, i. 71. Early symbols of, 215. Probable Gnostic origin of the conventional cast of features ascribed to Christ, 222. No authentic portrait of Christ in the time of St. Augustine, 223 note. The first notice in writing of the resemblance of Christ to his mother, 224 note. The image at Panceas, 229. Mosaic portrait preserved in the church of St. Praxede, at Rome, 237 note. The tradition of his deformity, 245. The forged letter of Lentulus to the Roman Senate on his appearance, 245 note. Cardan's horoscope of him, 284 note

Christianity: the early Christians in the Roman empire, i. 44. Paganism, how regarded by them, 45. Influence of the Alexandrian or Neo-Platonic school over them, 46 note. Exorcists among them, 49, 156 note. Terror which the doctrine of demons must have spread among them, 50. The title 'enemies of the human race' transferred from the Christians to the magicians, 54. Magical character attributed to Christian rites, 55. The miracle of St. Hilarion, 55, 56. Policy of the early Christians towards the magicians 59. Compromise between Christianity and Paganism, 60. Change in the twelfth century in the popular teaching, 73. Influence of rationalism on Christianity, 199. Examples of fetish notions in the early Church, 204. Singularly touching and sublime character of the early Church, 212. Its symbolism as evinced in early Christian art, 213. Triumph of Christianity by absorbing and transforming old systems rather than annihilating them, 223. Distinctive type and tone of Christianity banished from art, and replaced by types of paganism, 259. Originality of the moral type of Christianity, 311. Real character and test of the Christian religion, 329. Boundless philanthropy of modern Christianity, 348. The sense of sin appealed to most strongly by Christianity. 356. First congelation of the moral sentiments of Christianity into an elaborate theology, 356. Belief of the early Church that all external to Christianity were doomed to damnation, 360. Triumph of Christianity in the Roman empire on the condition of transforming itself under the influence of the spirit of sect, ii. 106. Passive obedience of the early Christians, 137, 140. Synthesis of the moral principles of Christianity and Paganism, 220. Christianity the most effective opponent of the evil of slavery, 229. The ferocity of manners corrected by the creation of Christian charity, 232. Long period that elapsed before the preëminent services of Christian charity were appreciated, 235. Great development of self-sacrifice by Christianity, 237. Position of public amusements in the early history of Christianity, 289

Chrysostom, St., on women, i. 99

Church and State theory, the, in England and France, ii. 121

Church, Dr. Thomas, his answer to Middleton's attack on the veracity of the Fathers, i. 172

Cicero, his idea of the soul, i. 340

Cimabue, joy of the Florentines at one of his pictures of the Virgin, i. 263

Cimento, Accademia del, establishment of the, in Tuscany, i. 292

Circumcelliones, their turbulence, and persecution by Constantine. ii. 23

Civilisation, effect of, in destroying the belief in the miraculous, i. 162. Its power on contemporary as compared with historical miracles, 162

Classical writings, action of the revival of the, on liberty, ii. 193. In altering the type of heroism, 195. Attempts to mould them into the image of the mediæval conceptions, 198. This tendency ridiculed by Ulrich yon Hutten and Rabelais, 198 note. Effect of the revival of classical learning in Europe, 285

Clebergius, his objection to all forms of persecution, ii. 56 note. Passages from his writings quoted, 57 note

Clemens Alexandrinus, on ladies using looking-glasses, i. 236 note. Admits the possibility of the salvation of pagans, 377 note

Clément, the Dominican friar, his murder of Henri III. of France, ii. 151. Applauded for his act, 161

Clement V., Pope, removes all prohibitions against bull-fighting in Spain, i. 308 note

Clement, St., miracle related of, i. 95

Clergy, opinion that they should not, under any circumstances, cause the death of men, ii. 33. Toleration denounced by all sections of the clergy, 59. Religious liberty favoured by the marriage of the Protestant clergy, 62. Attitude of the clergy of England respecting religious liberty during the Revolution, 86, 87. Contest between the regal and ecclesiastical power, 108. Blow struck at the power of the clergy by the suppression of the monasteries, 125. Disappearance of the clergy from public offices, 226. Cruelty of the Spanish clergy to the Jews, 268

Clogy, Alexander, his life of Bedell, ii. 16 note

Cluten, Joachim, 'De Hæreticis persequendis,' ii. 55 note

Coffee, introduction of, into Europe, ii. 322

Coinage, results of tampering with the, ii. 316 note

Colbert, his suppression of executions for witchcraft, i. 117. And of accusations for sorcery, 118. His services to manufactures, ii. 326, 327

Collier, Jeremy, his work on the stage, ii. 310

Cologne, university of, its condemnation of a rationalistic spirit in some priests of the diocese, i. 104. Attempt of the Inquisition at, to destroy the whole literature of the Jews except the Bible, ii. 119

Colonies, substitution of industrial for military, ii. 351 note

Comets, effect of, on the superstitions of the dark ages, i. 64. Work of Fromundus and Fieni on, i. 280 note. Superstitions respecting them, 290. Raxo's statement of the prophetic character of comets, 290 note. Attempts to explain them in a rationalistic manner, 290. And of Paracelsus and Bayle to upset the superstitions respecting them, 291. Comets removed into the domain of law by Halley, 291. The tail of a comet considered by Whiston to be the locality of hell, 346 note

Commerce and trade, how regarded by the ancients, ii. 224. Its interests give rise to consulships, ii. 262. Its influence in leading men to tolerance, 262. Commercial activity of the Jews, 272. Rapid increase of commerce in Europe, 281

Commonwealth, great numbers of executions for witchcraft in England during the, i. 125

Como, number of sorcerers put to death at, in one year, i. 31

Conception, the Immaculate, first appearance of the doctrine of, i. 225. St. Augustine on, quoted, 224 note. Adopted by the Mahometans, 225 note. Rejected by St. Bernard as novel, 225 note

Concina on the history of usury, ii. 256 note, 257 note

Confessions of witches, how extorted in Scotland, i. 146 note

Constance, great numbers of witches burnt at, i. 31

Constance, Council of, its denunciation of the right to slay tyrants, ii. 159

Constantine, the Emperor, his severe law against secret magic, i. 52. His destruction of pagan statues, 258 note. His persecutions of Jews and heretics, ii. 22, 23. His policy towards the pagans, 24. Destroys the books of the Arians, 118. Legalises interest at 12 per cent., 246 note

Constantius, the Emperor, embraces the Arian heresy, i. 52. His penalties for every kind of magic, 52. St. Hilary's denunciations of him, ii. 137 note

Consubstantiation, almost silent evanescence of the doctrine of, i. 268

'Consulship of the Sea,' the institution so called, ii. 261 note

Consulships, foundation of, ii. 261, 281. The first recorded English consul 281 note

Convent scandals of Gauffridi, Grandier, and La Cadière, i. 28 note

Convocation advocates the execution of Mary Queen of Scots for idolatry, ii. 50 note. Undertakes to censure heretical books, 119

Copernican system, rise and condemnation of, i. 281. Rejected to the last by Lord

Bacon, 292 note

Cordova, the theatre of, destroyed, ii. 308 note

Corporations and guilds, their importance in the middle ages, ii. 240. Milan longer exempt from them than any other town in Europe, 282

Cosmas Indicopleustes, i. 275. His 'Topographia Christiana,' 276. On earthquakes, 288 note

Councils, influence of, in stimulating persecution, ii. 34

Coxe, Bishop, advocates the application of torture to the Catholic priests, i. 333 note

Craig, John, his application of the doctrine of probabilities to the Christian religion, i. 397. Review of his argument by Laplace, 398 note

Creation, spiritual meaning contained in the record of the, i. 273

Credit, movement in favour of manufactures stimulated by the invention of, ii. 332

Credulity proclaimed a virtue by the classes who were most addicted to falsehood, i. 296

Cross, examples of fetish notions in the early Church respecting the, i. 205. Introduction of the cross in the forms of Christian churches, 250 note

Crosse, Dr., his attacks on Glanvil, i. 132 note

Crucifix, miracle of the, at Burgos, i. 157. And in Christ's Church, Dublin, 164

Crucifixion, passion for representations of the, i. 241. Abolition of, as a servile punishment, ii. 229

Crusades, their influence in strengthening Mariolatry, i. 225. Influence of the Crusades on the theological government of political affairs, ii. 107. Compared with the religious wars of the Reformation, 109. Influence of the Crusades on industry, 240

Cudworth, Ralph, his defence of the belief in the existence of witchcraft, i. 136

Cybele, the mother of the gods, day on which her feast was celebrated, i. 224

Cyprian commands the devil to assail a religous maiden, i. 62. His view of the condemnation of all external to the Church, 376. The Levitical laws regarded by him as the foundation for the punishment of heretics, ii. 28

Cyprus stated by Nider to have been peopled by the children of incubi, i. 49 note


Dædalus, his sculpture, i. 242

Dallæus, his indignation at the Carnival dramas at Rome, ii. 308 note

Dances of the ancients, some of them reconstructed by Naudé, i. 115 note. The dancing mania of Flanders and Germany, origin of the, 77. Exorcism of the dancers, 77 note

Daniel in the lion's den, early Christian symbol of, i. 216

Dante, influence of his poem over the conceptions of theology, i. 248. His theory of international arrangements, ii. 218

Death, doctrine of the penal nature of, refuted by geology, i. 285. Jubinal's comparison of the heathen and mediæval representations of death, 378 note. Calmness with which it was contemplated by the heathen, 378. The death of Socrates, 378. Luther's saying on the subject, 378 note

Death, the black, i. 76. Causes to which it was attributed by the superstitious, 77. Annual festival at Treves in commemoration of it, 77 note

Death, Dance of, origin of the pictures of the, i. 78 note

Decemvirs, their law against magicians, i. 42

De Maistre, on the science of the ancients, quoted, i. 288 note. His remarks on Locke's philosophy, 403 note. And on Bacon's 403 note

Democracy: Protestantism, why favourable to, ii. 167. Circumstances that prepared the democracy of the eighteenth century, 201-207. Analysis of the democratic ideal, 218. Doctrine of the rights of nationalities, 218. Theories of international arrangements, 218. Democracy an aspect of the Christian spirit, 220

Demoniacs of the Bible regarded as lunatics by Webster and Hobbes, i. 137, and note

Demons, the, of the Alexandrian or Neo-Platonic school, i. 46. The doctrine of demons in its relation to heathen worship, 46 note. Origin of the word demon as signifying devil, 47. Tertullian on demons, 47. All the pagan gods and goddesses regarded by the early Christians as demons, 48. Male and female devils, 49 note. Exorcists among the early Christians, 49. The philosophical system of Psellus i. 68

De Montfort, his commencement of the massacre of the Albigenses, ii. 38

Dionysius the Areopagite, his writings the Bible of Mysticism, i. 344. In part translated by Scotus Erigena, 344

Descartes, influence of his writings in destroying the material notions associated with spirits, i. 116. His Theory of Vortices, 289. His influence on the decline of the mediæval notions of hell, 339, 345, 346. His doctrine of animals, 346 note. His account of the opinion of his contemporaries on the doctrine of a material fire, 346 note. Causes of his influence, 400. Animosity of the reformed clergy of Holland against him, ii. 50. The character of Descartes regarded as the sceptical philosopher, 63. His influence on religious liberty, 63, 64

Despotism, predisposition of the Anglican Church towards, ii. 180

'Deuce,' origin of the word, i. 49 note

Devil, his supposed especial power over apples, i. 30 note. Appearances of him, in various forms, in the dark ages, 61. Talismans for baffling his devices, 63. Bas-reliefs on cathedrals of men devoting themselves to the devil, 78 note. Scepticism at the present day on all subjects connected with the devil, 87. St. Thomas Aquinas on Satan's power, 88. Tempests and diseases said to be produced by him, 90, 92. His power of assuming the form of any animal, 95. The 'phenomena of love' under the especial influence of the devil, 99. Kirk's account of evil spirits among the Highlanders, 148 note. Position assigned to him in the religious plays, ii. 295

Diabolus, Sprenger's derivation of the word, i. 87 note

Diana, in Greek statues, a type of chastity, i. 243

Digby, Sir Kenelm, his remark on the belief in witchcraft in his time, i. 142

Diocletian, destroys the books of the Christians, ii. 118

Diplomacy, international, first great impulse given to, ii. 262. First use of the cipher in, 282 note

Diptychs, carved ivory, i. 236

Diseases said to have been produced by the power of the devil, i. 92

Dissenters, English, causes of their power in the seventeenth century, ii. 18. Want of success of persecution shown in their case, 18. Dissenters at the time of the Toleration Act, 18. Assimilated to the Scotch, 173

Dodwell, Dr. William, his answer to Dr. Middleton's attack on the veracity of the Fathers, i. 172

Dog, a, 'moved by the spirit of Pytho,' i. 96 note

Domat, his notion of the impropriety of money-lending, ii. 251 note

Dominick, St., legend of his mother's dream, ii. 124 The chief reviver of persecution, 114 note

Donatists, their fierce persecutions, ii. 22 note. Persecuted by Constantine, 23

Douay, number of sorcerers put to death at, in one year, i. 29. Executions for witchcraft at, 117

Douglas on miracles, i. 173

Dress, richness of, after the Crusades, ii. 274

Drinks, hot, importation of, into Europe, ii. 321. Their moral and social effects. 322

Dryads, notions of the early Christians respecting them, i. 47

Dublin, the miraculous crucifix in Christ Church at, i. 164

Durham Cathedral, Smollett's remarks on, i. 264 note

Dusii, the, of the pagans, regarded by the early Christians as devils, i. 48. The origin of our 'deuce,' 48 note


Earth, the centre of the, regard by St. Thomas as hell, i. 347 note.

Earthquakes, remarks of Cosmas Indicopleustes on, quoted, i. 288 note

East India Company begins the mercantile system in England, ii. 326 note

Echelles, Trois, the sorcerer, pardoned by Charles IX., i. 110

Eclipses, effects of, on the superstitions of the dark ages, i. 64. Said to have caused the death of a French king, 64

'Edinburgh Review,' its influence in England, ii. 125

Edwards, Jonathan, his views respecting infant baptism, i. 368. On 'Original Sin,' 368 note. On predestination, 387

Egyptians, influence of the national religion on the art of the ancients, i. 209

Eliberis, Council of, condemns usury, ii. 247 note

Elizabeth, Queen, her laws respecting witchcraft, i. 121. Success of persecution as shown in the laws of, ii. 14. Persecutions during her reign, 46. Bishop Bilson's apology for her policy towards the Catholics, 44 note. Answer she received from a Scotch deputation, 172

Encyclopædists, their denunciation of torture, i. 333

England, first law in, against witchcraft, i. 119. Scepticism in England at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries, 138. The unexampled severity of the penal code in England in the middle ages, 349. Number of annual executions in England in the middle of the eighteenth century, 350. Severity of the penal code during the reign of George III., 350. Sketch of the history of toleration in England, ii. 75-124. Disappearance of the clergy from offices of power in England, 125, 126. Political influence of the Italian republics on public opinion in England, 145 note. Debt England owes to her non-episcopal churches, 173. The two schools of despotism in England, 180. Parallel between the history of political and religious liberty in England, 183. The greatest English freethinkers inimical to liberty, 184. Difference between the growth of English and French liberty analogous to English and French tolerance, 185. Sale of English slaves to the Irish in the middle ages, 238 note. Introduction of usury into England, 254. First formally permitted by law, 256. First mercantile companies established in, 281. The first English consul recorded, 281 note. Introduction of the opera into England, 301. The drama in England, 310. Revolution of prices in England in the sixteenth century, 316 note. Beginning of the mercantile system in England, 326 note. Preëminence of England in political economy, 334

Ephesus, Council of, defined the manner in which the Virgin should be represented by artists, i. 225

Ephialtes, the demon of nightmare, according to the Greeks, i. 49 note

Ephrem, St., weds orthodox verses to Gnostic music, i. 220

Epicureans, their denial of the existence of evil spirits, i. 42

Epilepsy, an epidemic attack of, attributed to the afflicted having been baptised by unchaste priests, i. 364 note

Episcopalianism, its tendency compared with that of Presbyterianism, ii. 168

Erasmus, his firm belief in witchcraft, i. 84. His opposition to the doctrine of predestination, i. 385. His toleration, ii. 59

Essex, an old man mobbed to death as a wizard in, in 1863, i. 139 note

Eucharis, the actress, ii. 288 note

Eucharistic controversy, part taken in the, by the early Reformers, i. 372

Euhemerus, his theory of the origin of the gods of paganism, i. 305. Translated into Latin by Ennius, 305

Eunomius, his writings suppressed by the Emperor Arcadius, ii. 118

Eunuchs in opera houses, ii. 308

Eutychcs, the works of, prohibited by Theodosius, ii. 118

Evidential school, origin and decline of the, in England, i. 189. Its position in France, 190. And in Germany, 191. Strong tendency among the evidential school to meet the Rationalists half-way, 192

Exchange, the invention of letters of, ascribed to the Jews, ii. 272 note

Excommunication, its great power in the middle ages, ii. 108

Exorcists, early Christian, i. 49. Their tombs in the catacombs, 49 note. Order of exorcists in the Church of Rome, 49 note

Exorcism forbidden to clergymen by Convocation, unless licensed by their bishops, i. 141

Exorcists among the Christians, Pagans, and Jews, 156 note


Fabiola, her foundation of the first hospitals, ii. 235

Fairies regarded as devils, i. 48 note

Famine, effect of, on the superstitions of the dark ages, i. 64. Alleged cause of one in France, 64

Farces, the earliest, ii. 297. Blanchet's farce of 'Patelin,' 297 note. Spanish farces in the fifteenth century, 298 note

Farel, his approval of the murder of Servetus, ii. 52

Farmer, Hugh, his attempts to explain the diabolical possessions of Scripture by the ordinary phenomena of epilepsy, i. 173

Fathers of the Church, miracles related by them as undoubted and ordinary occurrences i. 156. The cessation of miracles supposed by early Protestants to have taken place when the Fathers passed away, 164. Neglect into which their works had fallen in the beginning of the eighteenth century, 167. Dr. Middleton's attack on their veracity, 168. Their denial of the existence of the Antipodes, 275, 276. Their conception of hell, 316. Justified pious frauds, 394 note. Their opinions on toleration, ii. 21. On passive obedience, 136. Their services in making labour honourable, 231. Their condemnation of money-lending, 245. Their denunciation of the theatre, 288, 289

Fauns, the, of the pagans, regarded by the early Christians as devils, i. 48

Feltre, Bernardin de, founded money-lending societies in Italy, ii. 249

Fetishism probably the first stage of religious belief, i. 204. Examples of fetish notions in the early Church, 205. The fetishism of the ancient Greeks, 242

Fian, Dr., his horrible tortures and death for witchcraft, i. 123 note

Fiard, Abbé, charges the philosophers with being the representatives of the old sorcerers, i. 118

Fieni assists Fromundus in a work on comets, i. 280 note

Fights, sham, of Italy, ii. 292 note

Filmer, his advocacy of passive resistance, ii. 181. Answered by Sidney, 181

Fire regarded by the ancients as the portal of the unseen world, i 320 note

Fish, the, a symbol of Christ, i. 215, 216

Flagellants, origin of the order of the, i. 74.

Their discipline, 74. Their reappearance at the period of the black death, 77

Flies, Beelzebub god of, i. 95 note Florence, the dyers of, in the middle ages, i. 255 note. Luxury of, after the Crusades, ii. 274. Trade in money, 254

Fœmina, Sprenger's derivation of the word, i. 87 note

Fœtus, pagan practice of destroying it in the womb, i. 364 note

Fools, Feast of, ii. 295. Origin of the, 296 note

Fortunatus, St., 'On the Cross,' quoted, i. 205 note

Foscarini, the Carmelite, his defence of the Copernican system, i. 281 note. His condemnation, 281 note

Foundlings, multitudes of, sustained by the early Christians, ii. 233. Sketch of the history of foundling hospitals in Europe, 234 note

Fox, Charles James, on the relation of scepticism and toleration, ii. 20 note

France, persecution of witches in the south of, i. 29. Gradual cessation of persecution for witchcraft and sorcery in, 118. Occasional apparitions of the Virgin among ignorant and superstitious peasants in, 159. Allegiance of France to Christianity thrown off in the last century, 186. Result of her return to the Church, 186. Protestant persecutions in, ii. 49. Sketch of the history of toleration in France, 63, 103. France at the head of modern liberalism, 121. Circumstances that made patriotism in France antagonistic to liberty, 165. Attitude of the Protestants in 1615, 165. Declarations by the Sorbonne of the absolute independence of the civil power, 166. Difference between the growth of English and French liberty analogous to English and French tolerance, 185. Wide influence of the French Revolution, 213. Usury in France in the eighth and ninth centuries, 254 note, 255. Impulse given to French commerce from the relations of France with the Turks, 273. Luxury after the Crusades, 274. Contrast between the French and Italian dramas in their relation to the Church, 299. Introduction of the opera into France, 301

Frauds, pious, i. 393. Justified by the Fathers, 393. Dr. Newman on, 394 note

Frederick, King of Prussia, his abolition of torture in his dominions, i. 334

Frederick II, Emperor, declares himself the protector of the Inquisition, ii. 113

Freethinkers in Roman Catholic countries, character of the modern school of, i. 184

Fromundus, his works and views, i. 280 note

Fulgentius, St., condemns all external to the Church. i. 377. His statement of the doctrine of infant baptism, quoted, 362


Galileo, condemnation of, by the literal school of Scriptural interpreters, i. 275, 281

Gallican Church, its contemptuous disregard of the decrees of the Second Council of Nice, i. 231.

Gerbert the reputed author of Gallican opinions, 282 note. The Gallican Church the representative of despotic interests, ii. 163

Gardening, influence of Rousseau on the science of, ii. 215. Le Nôtre's style, 216

Garinet, on sorcery, quoted, i. 33 note

Gataker, on lots, i. 287 note

Gauls, money-lending among the, ii. 244

Generation, spontaneous, theory of, i. 344. Melanchthon's remarks upon the question of the causes of the difference of sex, quoted, 345 note. The laws of generation as explained by Mr. Morell, ii. 97

Genesis, objections of the Manichæans to the literal interpretation of, i. 272. Answered by St. Augustine, 273

Geneva, great numbers of witches executed in, i. 31

Genii, pagan representations of the, adopted by Christian art as guardian angels, i. 215

Genius, a good, represented by the old Egyptians as a serpent with a hawk's head, i. 221 note

Genovesi advocates the abolition of the usury laws, ii. 260 note

Gentilis, his death, ii. 49

Geology refutes the doctrine of the penal nature of death, i. 285

Germany, vast numbers of witches put to death in, i. 27. Character of the biblical criticism of 305. Persecution of the Catholics in Germany, ii. 46. Probable cause of the ascendency of German thinkers in Europe, 133

Gerson, chancellor of the University of Paris, his defence of the belief in witchcraft, i. 88. His remarks on persons who denied the existence of demons, quoted, 104. Denounces tyrannicide, ii. 159

Gibbon, Edward, causes of his going over to the Church of Rome, i. 172, 180

Gilbert, William, his discoveries respecting the magnet treated with contempt by Lord Bacon, i. 292 note

Giotto, religious feeling pervading his works, i. 246

Gladiatorial shows, the last, ii. 234. Origin of, 293 note

Gladstone, W. E., his 'Church and State,' quoted, ii. 127

Glanvil, Joseph, his defence of the persecution of witches, i. 53. His defence of the belief in witchcraft, 129. General outline of his opinions, 130. Of his essay on

'Anti-fanatical Religion and Free Philosophy,' 132. His 'Sadducismus Triumphatus,' 133. Its great success, 135. His tolerance, ii. 84 note

Glass painting, common long before the time of Cimabue, i. 237 note. Origin of the tracery of some of the windows of the French cathedrals, 255 note

Gloucester, Duchess of, her punishment for witchcraft, i. 120

Gnosticism: origin of the central doctrine of the Æons, i. 49 note. Influence of

Gnosticism over Christian art, 217. Its view of the God of the Jews, 220 note. Of the 'Unknown Father,' 220. The two principal Æons, Christ and the Sophia, 221. The worship of the Virgin strengthened by Gnosticism, 221. Reverence of many of the Gnostics for the serpent, 221 note. The woman who was healed of the issue of blood one of the principal types of the Gnostics, 221 note. Absorbing and attracting influence of Gnosticism, 222. Probable Gnostic origin of the conventional cast of features ascribed to Christ, 222

God the Father, representations of, in Christian art, comparatively modern, i. 216, 218. How represented in different countries, 219. Difference between the conception of the Divinity in a scientific and unscientific age, 288

Gods of the pagans, notions of the early Christians respecting the, i. 47

Gold, economical error of regarding it alone as wealth, ii. 313

Goldsmith's work of Rouen, Italy, and Limoges, i. 237 note. St. Eloi, their patron, i. 237 note

Gospels, the apocryphal, their influence over Christian art, i. 222

Gothic architecture, origin of, i. 262. Fitness of, for churches, 263. Disfavour into which it fell in the eighteenth century, 264 note. The fluctuations in the estimate of this architecture represent the fluctuations of religious sentiments, 263. Causes of the ancient preference of Gothic to Roman architecture, 264 note. Singular criticisms of Gothic to Roman architecture, 264 note. Singular criticisms of

Gothic architecture, 264 note. Its revival in the present century, 264 note

Gottschalk, the monk, holds the doctrine of double predestination, i. 385 note. His punishment, 385 note

Government, its power of influencing the reason of the people, ii. 14. Hooker's doctrine of the true origin and functions of, 177. Locke's treatise on government, 182

Gazzoli, Benozzo, his works, i. 247

Gratian, the Emperor, his slave law, ii. 230 note

Grattan, on the Act of Union, ii. 182 note

Gravitation, problem of, i. 297

Greeks, their notion of nightmare, i. 49 note. Their belief in evil spirits and sorcery, 42. Influence of the national religion on the art of the ancient, 209. Greek worship of beauty, 239. Greek idolatry faded into art, 242. Creative power in art becomes extinct among the Greeks, 244. Influence of the resurrection of the spirit of ancient Greece on mediævalism, 251. Immense sums expended by ancient Greece upon works of art, 257. Works of excavation carried on by the French in Greece, 259 note. Acquaintance with the Greek tongue in Ireland in the ninth century, i. 320. The Greek fear of the dead and predisposition to see ghosts, 341 note. In industrial pursuits, how regarded in Greece, ii. 224. Money-lending among the Greeks, 244. The lawfulness of usury maintained by the Greeks after the twelfth century, 250. Music among the Greeks, 316 note

Gregorius Thaumaturgus one of the latest eminent for the gift of miracles, i. 165

Gregory of Nyssa, his disbelief in eternal punishments, i. 316

Gregory the Great, his emancipation of his slaves, ii. 230

Gregory XIII., Pope, removes the prohibition of Paul V. against bull-fighting, i. 308 note

Gregory XXVI., Pope, his condemnation of religions liberty, ii. 74

Grévin, his play 'The Death of Cæsar,' ii. 159

Grillandus, 'On the Poverty of Witches,' i. 28 note. 'On their Medical Knowledge,' 93 note

Grindal, Bishop, advocates the application of torture to the Catholic priests, i. 333 note

Gronovius, influence of the Roman law on his political teaching, ii. 194. His works, 195 note

Grotius, his view of rebellion, ii. 137 note. His theory of international arrangements, 218

Guido of Arezzo, his invention of musical notation, ii. 300

Guilds and corporations, their importance in the middle ages, it. 240

Gunpowder, importance of the discovery of, to democracy, ii. 206


Hale, Sir Matthew, his belief in the existence of witchcraft, i. 128

Hall, Robert, his advocacy of liberty, ii. 173 note

Haunold, on usury, ii. 257

Hanseatic League, commerce of the, ii. 282. Its suppression of piracy, 282

Harrington, James, on liberty of conscience, ii. 80 His 'System of Politics,' quoted, 80 note. His 'Oceana,' 145 note. Answers to his arguments, 145 note. His advocacy of the ballot, 145 note. On the necessity of usury, 259 note

Harsenet, Dr., archbishop of York, enumerates witchcraft amongst 'Popish impostures,' i. 142

Harvey, his discovery of the circulation of the blood not owing to Bacon's method, i. 292 note. First result of his discovery, 299

Hawkswood, Sir John, and the Italian condottieri, ii. 206

Healing, cause of the adoption of the serpent as the emblem of, i. 220 note

Helena, worship of, i. 220 note

Hell, catalogue of the leaders, and description of the organisation of, i. 107. Patristic conception of, 315. Views of Origen and Gregory of Nyssa, 316. Faint notions of the Jews and heathens on the subject, 318. Elaboration of the conception of punishment by literal fire in the middle ages, 319. Extreme terrorism of the fourteenth century, 321. Dean Milman on the passion for detailed pictures of hell, 322 note. Destruction of natural religion by the conception of hell, 323. Effect of the doctrine of eternal punishment on man's character, 326 et seq. Causes of the decline of the mediæval notions of hell, 338. The belief in hell one of the corner-stones of the psychology of the Fathers, 341. Opinions of the contemporaries of Descartes. 346 note. The locality of hell, 346. Elimination of the doctrine of future torture from religious realisations, 352

Helmont, Van, his receipt [sic: recipe?] for producing mice, i. 345 note

Henry III. of France, his murder, ii. 151. The murder eulogised by the League and by the Pope, 161

Henry IV. of France, establishes the principle of toleration by the edict of Nantes, ii. 69. His theory of international arrangements, 218

Henry VIII. of England, formally permits money-lending, ii. 256

Hercules represented in some of the old churches, i. 214 note. In Greek statues the type of the dignity of labour, 243

Hereditary guilt, the conception of, i. 357. Theories to account for it, 358. Expression of this general conception in dogmatic teaching, 358. Weakened by the progress of democratic habits, 358. Its dogmatic expression the doctrine that all men are by nature doomed to damnation, 360. Infant baptism, 360

Heresiarchs, the age of, passed, i. 187. M. de Montalembert's remarks on Lamennais as an heresiarch, 187 note

Heretics, use of slow fire in burning them in some districts, i. 331 note. Torture of heretics in the sixteenth century, 332. Bishop Simancas on heretics possessing no moral rights 394 note. The first law in which the penalty of death is annexed to the simple profession of a heresy, ii. 23 note. The Levitical law regarded by Cyprian as the foundation of dealings with heretics, 28. St. Augustine's view of heresy, 31, 32 note. Denunciation by St. Martin and St. Ambrose of the execution of some heretics, 33. Few heretics persecuted for several centuries before the Albigenses, 36, 37. Heresies renewed by the decomposition of mediæval society, 38. Encountered by persecution, 38. Eymericus the Inquisitor, 41 note. Bull of Pope Innocent IV. enjoining examination by torture, 42 note. Sentence pronounced upon the relapsed heretic, 43 note. Ferocity displayed towards the children of heretics, 44 note 45 note. Right of the civil magistrates to punish heresy maintained by Luther, Beza, &c., 50. But opposed by Zuinglius and Socinus, 51. Repeal of the writ 'De Hæretico comburendo,' 85. Work of Jansenius on the sinfulness of alliances with heretics, 110. Sketch of the constitution and progress of the Inquisition, 111

Hermaphrodites introduced by Polycles into art, i. 256 note

Hernandez, the Spanish sculptor, his piety, i. 247 note

Heroism, effect of the classical writings in altering the type of, ii. 196

Highlanders, Robert Kirk's account of evil spirits among the, i. 148 note

Hilarion, St., his miracle performed for the benefit of Italicus, i. 55. Other miracles related of him, 56 note

Hilary, St., of Poitiers, his advocacy of absolute and complete toleration, ii. 21. His denunciation of the Emperor Constantius, ii. 137 note

Hinckmar, archbishop of Rheims, his opposition to the worship of images, i. 231. On infant baptism, 361. His opposition to Gotteschalk's doctrine of double predestination, 385 note

History, influences of the morphological theory of the universe upon, i. 295

'Histriomastix,' the, of Prynne, ii. 310 note

Hobbes, his influence one of the causes of the decline of the belief in witchcraft, i. 128. His unflinching support of persecution, ii. 85. Inimical to liberty, 184

Hobson, Elizabeth, her account of an apparition that had appeared to her, i. 140

Holidays, Catholic, ii. 323 note

Holland, Protestant persecutions of the Catholics in, ii. 50. See Netherlands

Hooker, Richard, love of truth manifested in his works, ii. 77. His doctrine of the origin and functions of government, 179. And of passive obedience, 179

Hôpital upholds religious liberty, ii. 59

Hopkins, Matthew, the witchfinder, i. 125

Horsley, Bishop, his advocacy of passive obedience to the laws, ii. 184

Hospitals of the early Christians, ii. 233. The hospitals erected by Fabiola, 235. The network of hospitals founded after the Crusades, 236

Hotman, his 'Franco-Gallia,' ii 188. Account of the author, 188 and note

Howard, John, i. 349

Hroswitha, her religious plays, ii. 294

Hudibras on executions for witchcraft, i. 126 note

Huet, bishop of Avranches, his view of the utter vanity of philosophy, i. 370 note

Humanity, virtue of, i. 307. Inhumanity of some of the sports of our ancestors, 307, 308

Hume, David, his 'Essay on Miracles,' i. 172. His method of reasoning anticipated by Locke, 172 note. Influence of his essay at the present day, 189. Inimical to liberty, ii. 184. On usury, 260

Huss, John, his liberal opinions, ii. 168

Hutchinson, on the number of executions for witchcraft in England, i. 120 note

Hutchinson, on the causes of the ancient preference of Gothic to Roman architecture, i. 264 note

Hutten, Ulrich von, his liberal views, ii. 169. His ridicule of the attempt to mould the classics into the image of mediævalism, 198 note. His irony on the Christian horror of the Jews, 265 note

Hydraulicon, water organ, i. 262 note

Hyperæsthesia of the memory, cases of, ii. 97 note


IchqV, the initial letters of the name of Christ as Saviour i. 215 note

Iconoclasts, use and progress of the, i. 230. Quarter whence the Iconoclasts issued forth, 245. Effect of the Iconoclast persecution on Italian art, 244 note

Idolatry, reasons why uncivilised man falls into, i. 208. A sign sometimes of progress, sometimes of retrogression, 208. St. Agobard's work denouncing the idolatry of image-worship, 232. Intimate connection of idolatry with the modes of thought of the middle ages, 234. Mahometanism the sole example of a great religion restraining semi-barbarians from idolatry, 234. Causes why Greek idolatry fades into art, 242

Ignatius, St., his introduction of the practice of antiphons, ii. 300

Illiberis, decree of the Council of, against paintings in churches, i. 230

Illumination. See Manuscripts

Image-worship. See Idolatry

Impromptus, old plays termed, ii. 297

Infantry, change in the relative importance of cavalry and infantry in war, ii. 205

Innocent III., Pope, his institution of the Inquisition, i. 74. Establishes the Inquisition, ii. 38. His bull confiscating the goods of heretics, 44 note

Innocent IV., Pope, his bull enjoining the examination of heretics by torture, ii. 42 note

Innocent VIII., Pope, his bull against sorcery, i. 32. Commissions the Inquisitor Sprenger, 32

Innocent XI., Pope, his condemnation of usury, ii. 248

Inquisition, institution of the, i. 74. The first law in which the title 'Inquisitors of the Faith' appears, ii. 23 note. Form of supplication employed by Inquisitors, 34 and note. Trautsmandorff's work in favour of toleration, 34 note. Magnitude and atrocity of the persecutions of the Inquisition, 40. Paramo's remark on the Inquisition, 42 note. Pardon always promised by the Inquisitors to those who would confess or retract their opinions within a certain period, 45 note. Frequent hostility of the Inquisition to the civil power, and its separation of religious questions from politics, 111. Sketch of the constitution and progress of the Inquisition, 111

Incarnation, desire in the middle ages to give a palpable form to the mystery of the, i. 224 note. Instances of a conception by the ear, 224 note

Incubi or male devils, i. 48 note. Their peculiar attachment to women with beautiful hair, 49 note. Their sons in the isle of Cyprus, 49 note

Independents, their tolerant spirit, ii. 78

'Index Expurgatorius,' orignated by Paul IV., ii. 119

India, influence of the national religion on the art of ancient, i. 209, 210 note

Industry: the industrial history of Rationalism, ii. 222 et seq. Slavery the basis of the industrial system of antiquity, 223. Industry, how regarded in ancient Greece and Rome, 224. Services of the Fathers and of the Benedictines in making labour honourable, 231. Modern industrial history begun by the emancipation of the towns, 239. Effects of the Crusades on industry, 240. Importance of corporations in the middle ages, 240. Points of contact of industrial and theological enterprises, 241. Usury the first ground of collision, 241. Effect of industry on theological judgments, 273. Injury done to industry by persecution, 273. Cause of the decline of the ideal of poverty, 274. Luxury and sumptuary laws of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 281. Rapid increase of commerce in Europe, 281. An intellectual ascendency given to industry by the Medici, 282. Harmony of the industrial movement with the other tendencies of the age, 283. The creation of the theatre the last service of the industrial civilisation of Italy, 310. The sceptre of industry almost in the grasp of Spain, 311. Incompatibility of monasticism with industry, 316. Cessation of the commercial antagonism of Protestantism and Catholicism, 323. Conflict between the manufacturing and agricultural interests, 324. School of Sully opposed to manufactures, 326. The school of Colbert favourable to them, 326, 327. Beginning of the mercantile system in England, 326, note. Invention of credit, 332. And of machinery, 332. Political economy an expression of an industrial civilisation, 334. Industry the destroyer of asceticism among the moderns, 350. Intellectual influences favourable to industrialism, 351. Utilitarianism the philosophical expression of industrialism, 352

Interest, principles that regulate, ii. 242. Unknown to the ancients, 244. See also Usury

International arrangements, theoties of, Hildebrand, &c., ii. 218

Investitures, the famous history of the, ii. 108

Irish, veneration of the ancient, for wolves i. 95 note. Their belief in lycanthropy, 97 note

Ireland, learning in, in the ninth century, i. 320. Number of converts from Catholicism to Protestantism produced by the penal system in seventy-one years, ii. 15. The outbreak of 1640, 16. Want of success of persecution shown in the case of Irish Catholics, 16. Persecution of the Catholics in, in the seventeenth century, 47. Liberalism of the Irish Parliament, 121-124. Controversy in Ireland on toleration in 1725, 123 note. Patriotism replaced by sectarianism, 124. Sale of English slaves to the Irish in the middle ages, 238 note

Isaac, the 'wood of sacrifice' borne by, a type of the cross, i. 205 note

Isabella, queen of Spain, her decree of banishment against the Jews, ii. 269

Isadore, St., on infant baptism, i. 363 note

Isis, the Egyptian conception of, transferred to the worship of the Virgin, i. 223

Italicus, the Christian, and the miracle of St. Hilarius, i. 55

Italy, great number of sorcerers put to death in in one year, i. 30. Goldsmith's work of, 238 note. Moral condition of Italian society, and its influence on art, in the middle ages, 253. Chief causes of the perfection attained by the Italian painters of the sixteenth century, 254. Gothic architecture never in favour in Italy, 265 note. Abolition of torture in, 334. Antecedents, of Rationalism in Italy, 370. Political influence of the Italian republics on public opinion in England, ii. 145 note. Intense hostility excited in Italy by the Inquisition, 116. The Italian condottieri [free-lances], 206. Foundation of the 'Monti di Pietà' in, Italy, 249. Usury made popular by the rise of the Italian republics, 254. Toleration accorded by the Italian republics to the Jews, 272. The old sham fights, of Italy, 292 note. Fondness of the Italians for the theatre, 308


James I. of England, his zeal against witchcraft, i. 123. His law subjecting witches to death upon the first conviction, 124. Presides over the tortures inflicted on Dr. Fian, 124 note. His infatuation the subject of witchcraft, 149

James II., his proclamation of religious liberty, ii. 86

Jansenius, his book on the sinfulness of alliances with heretics, ii. 110

Januarius, St., miracle of, at Naples i. 159

Japan, success of persecution shown in the case of the Christians in, ii. 14

Jesuits, tyrannicide defended by the, ii. 161. Their services to liberalism, 162. Casuistry of the Jesuits applied to the subject of usury, 257. Their proclamation of the 'social contract,' ii. 148. Suarez, 'De Fide,' 147, 148, Mariana 'De Rege,' 150

Jewel, Bishop, on the increase of witchcraft in England, i. 121. His 'Apology,' 170

Jews, the black death ascribed to them. i. 77. Their religion regarded by some of the Gnostics as the work of the principle of evil, 221 note. Constantine's persecution of the, ii. 22. Influence of their laws on persecution, 22. Partiality of the Spaniards for the burning of Jews, 116. The whole literature of the Jews, except the Bible, proposed to be destroyed, 119. Jewish emancipation in England, 125. The Jews early noted as slave-dealers, 230. Jewish slaves in the middle ages, 239 note. Usury almost monopolised by the Jews, 254. The Jews the first class benefited by the tolerance caused by commerce, 263. Persecutions of the Jews, 263. Superstitions concerning them, 265 note. Controversy in the middle ages as to whether they should be permitted to practise usury, 266 note. Their services to literature, 267, 272. Expelled from Spain, 267. Massacre in Seville and other places in Spain, 267, 268. Barbarity of the Portuguese towards them, 270. Their commercial activity, 272. Tolerated in the Italian republics, 272. Said to have invented letters of exchange, 272 note

Joan of Arc, her execution for witchcraft, i. 120

John, Friar, his success on promoting the Inquisition in Italy, ii. 117 note

John, St., legend of the portrait of, found in the house of a Christian, i. 235 note

Jonah rescued from the fish's mouth, symbol of, i. 216

Jovian, the Emperor, his tolerance of pagan magic, i. 57

Juanes, the Spanish painter, i. 247 note

Judaism, patriotism the moral principle of, ii. 104, 106

Julian, his attempt to consolidate Neo-Platonism, i. 46 note. His love of magic, 56, 57. His testimony to the charity of the Christians, ii. 235. His antipathy to public amusements, 290

Julius II., Pope, his bull against sorcery, i. 32. His munificence to artists, 259

Jupiter, Greek busts of, i. 239 note. Their character, 244

Jurieu advocates the lawfulness of persecution, ii. 50. His political teaching, 187 note, 188

Jurisprudence, phases of, ii. 194

Justin Martyr, his assertion of the continuance of miracles in his time, i. 168. Admits the possibility of the salvation of pagans, 377 note

Justinian, the Emperor, his law respecting usury, ii. 253 note


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