Footnotes:
"Introduction to Activistic Atheism"
"What is Atheism?"

1.  Thomas Paine, The Rights of Man Part the Second, "Introduction."

2.  Cliff Walker, from the section "Atheism as Vitriolic Smear Word" of "Introduction To Activistic Atheistic" (October, 2000)

3.  "For Truth and Liberty: Presbyterians and McCarthyism," by Rick Nutt, Journal of Presbyterian History, Spring, 2000.

4.  Merriam-Webster's dictionary lists wickedness as a synonym for the word atheism.

5.  The New International Version footnote emphasizes that the word translated fool means "morally deficient," thus reinforcing the stereotype that atheism equals wickedness.

6.  Psalm 14:1.

7.  Jesus in Mark 16:16. (This passage is admitted to being a forgery by all but the most hard-core fundamentalists, but it concisely represents sentiments attributed to Jesus throughout the New Testament.)

8.  Paul, in Romans 1:20-22, 28. Based on this passage and a few others, many Christians falsely accuse atheists of secretly knowing that the Christian religion is true, but willfully lying about what we "know" to be true!

9.  Theodore M. Drange, Nonbelief and Evil: Two Arguments for the Nonexistence of God (1998), pp. 74-80.

10.  A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth, and Logic (1936).

11.  Michael Martin, Atheism: A Philosophical Justification, p. 77 (1990).

12.  Michael Martin, Atheism: A Philosophical Justification, p. 77 (1990).

13.  Michael Martin, Atheism: A Philosophical Justification, p. 78 (1990).

14.  Theodore M. Drange, Nonbelief and Evil: Two Arguments for the Nonexistence of God (1998), pp. 79-80.

15.  Cliff Walker, "Solidification and Isolation," part of the section "Discussing Atheism with Others" of "Introduction To Activistic Atheism" (1999, rev. October, 2000), which was originally derived from a section of C. Dennis McKinsey, Encyclopedia of Biblical Errancy.

16.  Shri K. G. Mashruwala, Introduction to Gora's An Atheist With Gandhi (1951).

17.  Shri K. G. Mashruwala, Introduction to Gora's An Atheist With Gandhi (1951). (See the passage in question.)

18.  Paul Edwards, ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1973), quoted in Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies (1991) pp. 51-60.

19.  Michael Shermer, How We Believe (1999), pp. 256-58.

Cliff Walker commented on Shermer's distinction between atheists and nontheists in his December, 1999, column Atheism & Fundamentalism.

Shermer responded in a letter dated November 19, 1999, which was printed in the same issue as the column.

20.  "I would choose the weak definition and the strong position, while rejecting dogmatism." -- Victor Gijsbers, in a private letter to Cliff Walker, dated September 25, 2000.

21.  Most notably Michael Martin in his 1990 book, Atheism: A Philosophical Justification. Martin basically characterizes negative atheism as being unconvinced by theism's various claims, and positive atheism as having arguments refuting the notion that gods exist.

22.  Robert Anton Wilson, Schrödinger's Cat Volume 1, The Universe Next Door (first edition: 1979), Glossary, p. 256.

23.  George H. Smith in "Defining Atheism," Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies (1991) pp. 51-60.

24.  Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker, pp. 5-6.

25.  Baron d'Holbach, Good Sense, (1772), quoted in Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies (1991) pp. 51-60.

26.  Charles Bradlaugh, The Freethinker's Text-Book (1876), quoted in Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies (1991) pp. 51-60.

27.  J. M. Robertson, A History of Freethought in the Nineteenth Century (1929), quoted in Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies (1991) pp. 51-60.

28.  G. W. Foote, What Is Agnosticism (1902), quoted in Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies (1991) pp. 51-60.

29.  Joseph McCabe, A Rationalist Encyclopedia (1950), quoted in Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies (1991) pp. 51-60.

30.  Robert Flint, Agnosticism (1903), quoted in Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies (1991) pp. 51-60.

31.  Antony Flew, God, Freedom, and Immortality: A Critical Analysis, "The Presumption of Atheism" (1984), p. 14.

32.  George H. Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies, "Defining Atheism."

33.  George H. Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies, "Defining Atheism."

34.  "I concur with you strictly in your opinion of the comparative merits of atheism and demonism, and really see nothing but the latter in the being worshiped by many who think themselves Christians." -- Thomas Jefferson, in response to a letter from Richard Price, written from Paris on January 8, 1789. Price had said, "There has been in almost all religions a melancholy separation of religion from morality." Surely Jefferson is using the word atheism as a synonym for immorality; this was a common and accepted usage of the word 200 years ago.

Besides, Jefferson had said, to his nephew Peter Carr: "Fix reason firmly in her seat, and call to her tribunal every fact, every opinion. Question with boldness even the existence of a god; because, if there be one, he must approve the homage of reason rather than of blind-folded fear. Do not be frightened from this inquiry by any fear of its consequences.... If it end in a belief that there is no god, you will find incitements to virtue in the comfort and pleasantness you feel in its exercise and in the love of others it will procure for you." -- 10 Aug. 1787 (original capitalization of the word god is retained per original).

35.  George H. Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies, "Defining Atheism."

36.  Jesus in Mark 9:24.

37.  Quotations are descriptions of Scriven's views, taken from George H. Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies, "Defining Atheism," and describing Michael Scriven's book, Primary Philosophy. These are not direct quotations from Scriven's work.

38.  Quotations from George H. Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies, "Defining Atheism," describing Michael Scriven's book, Primary Philosophy. These are not direct quotations from Scriven's work.

39.  Michael Scriven, Primary Philosophy, (New York, 1966), as quoted in George H. Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies, "Defining Atheism."

40.  Quotations from George H. Smith, Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies, "Defining Atheism," describing Michael Scriven's book, Primary Philosophy. These are not direct quotations from Scriven's work.

41.  Victor Gijsbers, in a private letter to Cliff walker, September 25, 2000.

42.  Ian York, The AFU and Urban Legend Archive.

43.  Michael Martin, Atheism: A Philosophical Justification, no page reference available.

44.  Jonathan Rauch, Kindly Inquisitors: The New Attacks on Free Thought (Chicago, 1993), p. 57.

45.  Karl Popper, "The Two Faces of Common Sense," in Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach (Oxford, 1972), p. 77, quoted in Jonathan Rauch, Kindly Inquisitors: The New Attacks on Free Thought (Chicago, 1993), p. 51.

46.  Jonathan Rauch, Kindly Inquisitors: The New Attacks on Free Thought (Chicago, 1993), p. 51, 52.

47.  Merriam-Webster's Tenth Collegiate Dictionary.

48.  "Elian Siezed In Pre-Dawn Raid" (UPI) April 22, 2000.

49.  Wendy Kaminer, "The Last Taboo: Why America Needs Atheism," in The New Republic, October 14, 1996.

50.  "Americans Today Much More Accepting of a Woman, Black, Catholic, or Jew As President: Still Reluctant to Vote for Atheists or Homosexuals" by Frank Newport, Gallup News Service, March 29, 1999.

51.  See "God On Our Coins" by Jon G. Murray.

52.  New York State's highest court, on June 11, 1996, ruled that Alcoholics Anonymous "engages in religious activity and religious proselytization" in the case Griffin v. Coughlin. "A fair reading of the fundamental AA doctrinal writings discloses that their dominant theme is unequivocally religious," the court said. "Adherence to the AA fellowship entails engagement in religious activity and religious proselytization."

Other courts have followed this precedent, using it to rule that AA fits the legal definition of a religion, as religion relates to the United States Constitution. See our Recovery Watch section for more on this.

53.  To learn about the conspicuous absence of good done by Mother Teresa's foundations, and the mountain of harm her policies caused thousands of individuals, consult The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice by Christopher Hitchens (1997).

54.  Gora, "Atheistic Philosophy," chapter ii of the book Positive Atheism.

55.  Gora, "Atheism and Morality" in Atheism Questions and Answers.

56.  Joseph Lewis, "Thomas Paine: World Citizen": "Paine knew that liberty requires responsibility; he also knew that liberty provides for the making of errors. He knew, too, that knowledge and liberty are the great solvents of error and that trials and tribulations are its correctives. That is why he said, 'When nations are free, either in matters of government or religion, the truth will finally and powerfully prevail.'"

57.  Gora, "Atheistic Philosophy," chapter ii of the book Positive Atheism.

58.  Gora, "Atheistic Philosophy," chapter ii of the book Positive Atheism.

59.  Gora, "Atheistic Philosophy," chapter ii of the book Positive Atheism.

60.  Gora, "Atheistic Philosophy," chapter ii of the book Positive Atheism.

61.  Gora, Questions and Answers p. 83.

62.  Robert Green Ingersoll, "The Trial of C. B. Reynolds for Blasphemy."

63.  Gora, "Atheistic Philosophy," chapter ii of the book Positive Atheism.

64.  Thomas Paine, quoted in Joseph Lewis, Inspiration and Wisdom from the Writings of Thomas Paine (no citations provided).

65.  Madalyn Murray O'Hair, Radio Address #151.

66.  Mentioned in Cliff Walker, "Reducing Our Own Stigma," September, 2000.

67.  Michael Shermer, How We Believe, pp. 84-87 (2000).

68.  Positive Atheism Magazine, January, 2000.

69.  Victor J. Stenger, "From Magic to Science," chapter 4 of his 1990 book Physics and Psychics.

70.  Victor J. Stenger, "From Magic to Science," chapter 4 of his 1990 book Physics and Psychics.

71.  Victor J. Stenger, "From Magic to Science," chapter 4 of his 1990 book Physics and Psychics.

72.  Victor J. Stenger, "From Magic to Science," chapter 4 of his 1990 book Physics and Psychics.

73.  Victor J. Stenger, "From Magic to Science," chapter 4 of his 1990 book Physics and Psychics.

74.  Victor J. Stenger, "From Magic to Science," chapter 4 of his 1990 book Physics and Psychics.

75.  Mentioned in Cliff Walker, "Reducing Our Own Stigmacrt/cliff009.htm," September, 2000.

76.  This is a paraphrase of an exhortation frequently made by Lanny Swerdlow, former president of United States Atheists. Swerdlow was, for a long time, very open about denouncing any and every form of religion, even those forms whose practitioners did no harm to their fellow humans.

77.  Vice President Al Gore during a 60 Minutes interview, broadcast on Dec. 5, 1999, quoted in James Still, "Al Gore on Arrogant Atheists" (Positive Atheism, January, 2000).

78.  James Still, "Al Gore on Arrogant Atheists" (Positive Atheism, January, 2000).

79.  H. L. Mencken, "Aftermath" (coverage of the Scopes Trial), The Baltimore Evening Sun, September 14, 1925.

80.  Gora, "Atheism and Morality" in Atheism Questions and Answers.